Biology Revision

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  • Created by: Emead98
  • Created on: 07-05-14 18:41
What is the function of the nucleus?
Contains genetic material, which controls the activity of the cell
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What is the function of cytoplasm?
Most chemical processes take place here
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What is the function of the cell membrane?
Controls the movement of substances in and out of the cell. It is partially permeable
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What is the function of mitochondria?
Site of respiration
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What is the function of ribosomes?
Site of protein synthesis
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What is the function of the cell wall?
Strengthens the cell
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What is the function of chloroplasts?
They contain chlorophyll which absorbs light energy for photosynthesis
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What is the function of the permanent vacuole?
Filled with cell sap to help keep the cell turgid
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What is a bacterium?
It is a single-celled organism
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What features does a bacterial cell contain?
Cell membrane, cytoplasm and cell wall
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What is a yeast cell?
A single-celled organism
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Do yeast cells have a nucleus?
Yes
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How has the leaf cell adapted?
Packed with chloroplasts. Regular shaped, closely packed cells form a continuos layer for efficient absorption of sunlight
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How has the root hair cell adapted?
Long 'finger-like' process with very thin wall, gives a large surface area
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What is the sperm cell adaptation?
The head contains genetic information and an enzyme to help penetrate the egg cell membrane. The middle section is packed with mitochondria for energy. The tail moves the sperm to the egg.
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What is the red blood cell adaptation?
Thin outer membrane to let oxygen diffuse through easily. Shape increases the surface area to allow more oxygen to be absorbed efficiently. No nucleus, so the whole cell is full of haemoglobin
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What is diffusion?
The movement of particles from where they are in high concentration to an area where they are in low concentration
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In what two locations does diffusion happen in the body?
Gut and lungs
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What is meant by the term differentiation?
The process by which a cell becomes a specialised type of cell
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What is a tissue?
A group of similar cells that have a similar structure and function
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What is the function of the muscular tissue?
Contracts, bringing about movement
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What is the function of the glandular tissue?
Produces substances such as enzymes and hormones
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What is the function of the epithelial tissue?
It covers some parts of the body
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What are the four organ systems?
The nervous system, the digestive system, the respiratory system and the reproductive system
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What is the function of the pancreas and salivary glands?
Produces digestive juices
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What is the function of the stomach?
It digests food
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What is the function of the liver?
It produces bile
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What is the function of the small intestine?
Digest and absorb soluble food
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What is the function of the large intestine?
Absorbs water from undigested food, producing faeces
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In plants, what is the function of the epidermal tissue?
Covers the plant
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In plants, what is the function of mesophyll?
Carries out photosynthesis
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In plants, what is the function of Xylem and Phloem?
Transport of substances around the plant
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What are examples or organs in plants?
Leaves, stems and roots
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What is the function of the stomata in the plant leaf?
Lets carbon dioxide diffuse into the leaf
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What does the large surface area of the leaf do?
It absorbs more light
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Why is a plant leaf thin?
So that carbon dioxide has a shorter distance to diffuse into leaf cell
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What does the network of veins do in a plant leaf?
Supports the leaf and transports water and carbohydrates
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What are factors that can limit the rate of photosynthesis?
Temperature, carbon dioxide and light intensity
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What happens to light energy during photosynthesis?
Light energy is absorbed by chlorophyll, is used to convert carbon dioxide and water into glucose
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What is released as a by product of photosynthesis?
Oxygen
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What is the equation for photosynthesis?
Carbon dioxide+ water ----light energy------- glucose+oxygen
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What is glucose used for in plants?
Used for respiration or some is converted into starch for storage
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What does the use of artificial light mean for farmers growing plants in greenhouses?
It allows photosynthesis to continues beyond daylight hours. Bright lights also provide a higher than normal light intensity. Photosynthesises at an increased rate.
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What does the additional carbon dioxide in greenhouses do?
It allows photosynthesis to continue at an increased rate
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What is the use of paraffin lamps?
Their use increases the rate of photosynthesis because as well as the light generated from the lamps, the burning paraffin produces heat and carbon dioxide.
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Is glucose produced at night in plants?
No
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What are the two insoluble products that plants store glucose as?
Starch, fats and oils
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What are the physical factors that may affect organisms?
Temperature, amount of light, availability of water, availability of nutrients, availability of oxygen and carbon dioxide
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What is a transect?
A transect is a line across a habitat or part of a habitat.
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What is a quadrat?
A quadrat is usually a square made of wire.
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What should happen when using a quadrat?
It should be placed randomly so that a representative sample is taken.
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What are proteins?
Proteins are made from long chains of smaller particles called amino acids. These long chains are folded into particular shapes.
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What are enzymes?
They are biological catalysts and they are also proteins
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What do proteins act as?
Structural components of tissues, hormones, antibodies and biological catalysts
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When are enzymes denatured?
They are denatured by high temperatures or extremes of PH
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What is the optimum PH for intestinal enzymes?
7.5
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What is the optimum PH for enzymes in the stomach?
2
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What reaction is catalysed with Amylase?
Starch into sugars
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What reaction is catalysed with Protease?
Proteins into amino acids
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What reactions are catalysed with Lipase?
Lipids into fatty oils + glycerol
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Where is Amylase produced?
Salivary glands, small intestine and pancreas
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Where are Protease produced?
Stomach, small intestine and pancreas
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Where is Lipase produced?
Pancreas and small intestine
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What acid does the stomach produce?
Hydrochloric acid
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In what conditions do stomach enzymes work best in?
Acidic conditions
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In what conditions do the enzymes in the small intestine work best in?
Alkaline conditions
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What is bile produced for?
To neutralise the acid of the food from the stomach
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Where is bile produced?
In the liver
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Where is bile stored?
In the gall bladder
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What can protease be used for?
Used to pre-digest proteins during the manufacture of baby foods
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What is Lipase used for?
Used in biological detergents to break down the substances in stains into smaller, water soluble substances.
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What is carbohydrase used for?
Used to convert starch syrup, which is relatively cheap, into sugar syrup which is more valuable
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What is aerobic respiration?
The form of respiration that uses oxygen.
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What is the equation for aerobic respiration?
Glucose+oxygen -------- carbon dioxide+water (+energy)
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During exercise, the muscles respire more than they do at rest. What does this mean?
Oxygen and glucose must be delivered to them more quickly, waste carbon dioxide must be removed more quickly
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What do the muscles store glucose as?
Glycogen
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What is Anaerobic respiration?
Anaerobic respiration involves the incomplete breakdown of glucose. It releases around 5% of the energy released by aerobic respiration, per molecule of glucose.
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What is the waste product of anaerobic respiration?
Lactic acid
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What is the equation for anaerobic respiration?
Glucose------lactic acid (+little energy)
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What does muscle fatigue mean?
Muscles become tired during long periods of activity. They stop contracting efficiently.
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What is the cause of muscle fatigue?
Build up of lactic acid from anaerobic respiration. The lactic acid is removed from the muscles by blood flowing through them
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What is oxygen debt?
This is the amount of oxygen needed to oxidise lactic acid to carbon dioxide and water.
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What are Chromosomes made from?
DNA
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What are genes?
Short sections of DNA
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What does DNA stand for?
Deoxyribose nucleic acid
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What does DNA do?
Carries the genetic code that determines the characteristics of a living thing
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What is the process called were body cells divide?
Mitosis
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What happens when a body cell divides by Mitosis?
1. The genetic material is copied 2. The cell divides once to form two genetically identical body cells
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When does Mitosis occur?
It occurs during growth or to produce replacement cells
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What are gametes?
Sex cells
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Where are gametes found?
In the reproductive organs
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How many sets of genetic information do gametes contain?
One
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What is the type of cell division that creates gametes?
Meiosis
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What is fertilisation?
The joining or fusion of a female gamete and a male gamete.
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What happens after fertilisation?
A single body cell with new pairs of chromosomes is formed. The new cell then divided over and over again by mitosis which eventually form a new individual.
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What happens when Meiosis occurs?
1. Copies of the genetic information are made 2. The cell divided twice to form four gametes
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What are alleles?
Alleles are different forms of a gene
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What do fossils provide?
A record of organisms that lived a long time ago.
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What are the factors that can cause a species to become extinct?
New diseases, new predators, new more successful predators, changes to the environment, a single catastrophic event
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What is meant by the term genetic variation?
Where each population has a wide range of alleles that control their characteristics
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What is meant by the term natural selection?
Where the alleles which help an organism to survive are selected in each poulation
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What is meant by the term speciation?
Where the populations become so different that successful interbreeding cannot happen anymore
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What is the function of cytoplasm?

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Card 3

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What is the function of the cell membrane?

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Card 4

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What is the function of mitochondria?

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Card 5

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What is the function of ribosomes?

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