Biology - Proteins and enzymes

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What are proteins, monomers or polymers?
Polymers.
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What are polymers made of?
Long chains of smaller molecules called amino acids (monomers) which are folded up into particular shapes.
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What can proteins act as?
Muscles, hormones, antibodies and enzymes (biological catylysts).
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What do enzymes do?
Increse the rate of chemical reactions without being used up.
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How are enzymes shaped and why?
In complex shapes that allow smaller molecules onto them.
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What is the name of the place where the molecules fit.
The active site.
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What will happen if the shape of the enzyme changes.
The active site may no longer work.
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What happens to the enzyme when the active site no longer works?
It denatures.
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How else can enzymes become denatured?
High temperatures or extremes of PH.
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So are high temperatured bad in a chemcal reaction?
No because tat increase the rate of a reacction but too high is bad yes.
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What is an enzymes optimum temperature?
37 degrees (body temperature)
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Do all enzymes work best at the same PH value?
No
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What happens to the enzyme when the PH is altered?
They change shape.
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What does the optimum PH depend on?
Where it work.
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What are digestive enzymes produced and released by?
Specialised cells.
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What does amalyse catalyse and where?
The breakdown of starch in sugars in the mouth and and small intestine.
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What do proteseases catalyse and where?
The reakdown of proteins into amino acids in the stomach and small intestine.
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What do lipases catalyse?
The breakdown of fats and oils into fatty acids and glycerol in the small intestine.
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What does the stomach produce that mean enzymes can work better?
Hydrochloric acid.
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What does the live produce that means the enzymes can work better?
Bile which neutralises teh acid to provide alkaline condidotions.
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What do lipases break down and how are they used in manufacturing?
Fats used for bay foods.
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What do proteases break down and how are they used in manufacturing?
Proteins used in biological degertants.
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What do charbohydrases break down and how are they used in manufacturing?
Charboydrates used as an ingredient in sports drinks.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What are polymers made of?

Back

Long chains of smaller molecules called amino acids (monomers) which are folded up into particular shapes.

Card 3

Front

What can proteins act as?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What do enzymes do?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How are enzymes shaped and why?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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