Biology option C.2 (enzymes)

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  • Created by: Ninewatts
  • Created on: 01-04-15 12:48
Induced fit model
The shape of an active site on an enzyme changes to fit the substrate only when the substrate is close. This prevents possible but undesirable substrates from binding. However, the active site is flexible, which reduces number enzymes for substrates
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Mechanism for enzyme action
Substrates bind to the active site of an enzyme and are altered to reach an transition state. The energy used to reach the transition state is called the activation energy, which weakens or breaks bonds in the substrates.
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Enzyme inhibition
Enzyme inhibitors can be competitive or non-competitive. Inhibitors are chemical substances which attach to enzymes and reduce the activity of the enzyme.
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Competitive inhibitors
Chemically similar to the substrate, as both bind tot the active site. The inhibitor attaches to the active site to block it for the substrate. However, can be overcome by having a large number of substrate, which will out-compete the inhibitor.
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Non-competitive inhibitor
They attach to the enzyme at a location other than the active site. This changes the shape of the active site, the substrate can therefore not attach to the active site.
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End product inhibition (allosteric interactions)
Many enzymes are regulated by substances that bind to special enzyme sites known as allosteric sites, away from the active site, called allosteric interactions.
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End product inhibitions (the inhibitor)
In many cases, substrate concentration is one of the first things measured by the metabolic pathway, and the inhibitor is the product of the final step of the same pathway.
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End product inhibitions (the inhibitor) pt2
The end product can act as an inhibitor. This means that when an excessive amount of the product is formed, it will inhibit its own creation. The higher the product concentration, the slower the reactions.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Mechanism for enzyme action

Back

Substrates bind to the active site of an enzyme and are altered to reach an transition state. The energy used to reach the transition state is called the activation energy, which weakens or breaks bonds in the substrates.

Card 3

Front

Enzyme inhibition

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Competitive inhibitors

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Non-competitive inhibitor

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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