Biology option C.3 (cell respiration)

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Oxidation
Loss of electrons, loss of hydrogen and gain of oxygen
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Reduction
Loss of oxygen, gain of electrons and hydrogen
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Phosphorylation
Makes the molecules less stable, by adding an inorganic phosphate to an organic molecule. This makes the molecule more unstable and therefore more likely to react and are said to be 'activated'.
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Aerobic respiration
1.Glycolysis 2. Link reaction 3. Krebs Cycle 4. Oxidative phosphorylation and chemiosmosis
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Glycolysis step 1: Phosphorylation
Glucose (C6) has 2 ATP molecules added to reduce the activation energy of the glucose molecule. Hexose biphosphate is formed (C6PP)
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Glycolysis step 2: Lysis
The hexose biphosphate (C6PP) is split into half, this is called lysis. Two triose phosphate (C3P) molecules are formed.
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Glycolysis step 3: Oxidation
Each C3P molecule undergoes oxidation to form NADH from NAD. This oxidation releases energy which is used to add an inorganic phosphate (Pi) to the C3P compound. Glycerate--3-phosphate (C3PP) is formed.
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Glycolysis step 4: Substrate level phosphorylation
The two phosphate groups are removed from the C3PP compound and added to two ADPs to create two ATPs. Pyruvate is formed.
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The link reaction
The pyruvate from glycolysis is added coenzyme A. The compound is then decarboxylated, removing a CO2 molecule and oxidised, removing two high energy electrons and adding them to NAD. C2CoA is formed
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Aerobic respiration
Aerobic respiration must occur in the presence of oxygen. Thee two pyruvates formed in glycolysis are absorbed by the mitochodria where oxidative decarboxylation happens. This results in pyrvuate being converted to acetyl CoA
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The Krebs cycle (steps 1+2)
1. Acetyl CoA combines with a C4 molecule to create a C6 molecule. 2. An oxidation happens where NAD becomes NADH and a decarboxylation where CO2 is removed. a C5 molecule remains
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The Krebs cycle (steps 3+4)
3. A repetition of step 2, NAD is reduced to NADH and CO2 is removed due to decarboxylation, a C4 molecule remains. 4. Two oxidation reactions, NAD -> NADH and FAD -> FADH in addition to substrate level phosphorylation ADP+Pi -> ATP. CoA is released.
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Oxidative phosphorylation
After glycolysis and the Krebs cycle, we are left with 10 NADH and 2 FADH molecules. Each NADH is responsible for the production of 3 ATPS, FADH makes 2 ATPs.
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Electron transport chain
NADH is oxidised becomes NAD +H +2e. These free electrons then go from one electron carrier to the next, releasing energy for each step.This energy is then used to pump protons across the inner membrane of the mitochondria.
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Electron transport chain pt2
The pumping of the protons causes a high proton concentration in the outer compartment compared to the matrix. The protons will then flow back through ATP synthase and the energy caused by this flow is used to make ATP.
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Structures of a mitochondria
Matrix, inner membrane, intermembrane space, outer membrane, cristae
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Relationship between structure of mitochondria and function pt1
Matrix - watery substance that contains ribosomes and many enzymes, enzymes are vital for link reaction and krebs cycle. Inner membrane - electron transport chain and ATP synthase are found here, vital for oxidative phosphorylation.
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Relationship between structure of mitochondria and function pt2
Intermembrane space - small volume into which protons are pumped. due to small volume, high concentration gradient can be reached quickly, vital for chemiosmosis. Outer membrane - separates contetns of mitochondrion from rest of cell
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Relationship between structure of mitochondria and function pt3
Cristae - increase surface area for oxidative phosphorylation
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Card 2

Front

Reduction

Back

Loss of oxygen, gain of electrons and hydrogen

Card 3

Front

Phosphorylation

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Aerobic respiration

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Glycolysis step 1: Phosphorylation

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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