Biology option A.3 (Special issues in human nutrition)

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Composition of human milk
Contains amylase and lipase, contains white blood cells such as macrophages, contains antibodies, contains hormones, contains lactose, less iron, more cholesterol, lower levels of protein, high levels of amino acid taurine, 65% whey, 35% casein
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Composition of artificial milk
No amylase, lipase, white blood cells, antibodies or hormones. Contains glucose instead of lactose, more iron, less cholesterol, higher levels of protein, lower levels of amino acid taurine, 18% whey, 82% casein
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Benefits of breastfeeding pt1
Milk is species specific, so it contains all the nutrition a human baby needs, high percentage of whey makes it easy to digest, contains proteins that induce sleep, no risk of allergies, avoid being polluted or contaminated,
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Benefits of breastfeeding pt2
Reduces illness such as ear infection due to white blood cells, helps mother lose excess weight, less expensive
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Drawbacks of breastfeeding
Can be painful and ******* can become infected, possibility of passing pathogens from mother to baby (HIV), breastfeeding in public is unacceptable in some cultures, father is excluded, difficult to have a career while breastfeeding
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Diabetes results in the body being unable to reduce blood sugar, leading to hyperglycaemia. type 2 diabetes is much more common.
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Symptoms of type 2 diabetes
Being more thirsty than usual, urinating more frequently than usual, feeling tired all the time, more infections than usual, kidney and back pain
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Causes of type 2 diabetes
Occurs when body is less responsive to insulin, consequently, body becomes inefficient at lowering blood glucose after eating. caused by genetic predisposition, dietary factors or a lack of exercise
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Consequences of type 2 diabetes
can lead to high blood pressure, eye damage, kidney failure, nerve disease, increased risk of stroke and heart attack
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Dietary advice for patient who has type 2 diabetes
Maintain low fat diet, consume complex carbohydrates, eat regular and small meals.
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Arguments for being a vegetarian
Killing animals with a sense of pain is wrong, especially when not necessary for survival, raising animals for the sole purpose of slaughtering them is wrong, livestock industry is wasteful, agricultural practices lead to the destruction of ecosystem
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Arguments against being a vegetarian
Consuming animals reduces problems of malnutrition and huger, certain nutrients (Vit B12) can only be found in animal products, many jobs depend on cultivation of animals, some animals (cows/pigs) would not exist if not for food
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Benefits of reducing dietary cholesterol to reduce risk of coronary heart disease (CHD)
Cholesterol is required for cell membrane structure and hormone synthesis and is therefore necessary. However, increased levels of cholesterol lead to atherosclerosis, further exacerbated1 by a diet high in saturated fats.-
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Discuss the concept of food miles and the reason for consumers to choose food to minimise food miles
Food miles are a measure of distance food has travelled from site of production to consumer. High food miles cause pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. High food miles do not support local communities. High food mile foods are full of preservative
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Advantages of long-distance food transport
During famine, high food miles can be justified, consumers can buy a wide range of foods from all parts of the world, wide range of food = well-balanced diet, people can discover exotic foods
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Card 2


Composition of artificial milk


No amylase, lipase, white blood cells, antibodies or hormones. Contains glucose instead of lactose, more iron, less cholesterol, higher levels of protein, lower levels of amino acid taurine, 18% whey, 82% casein

Card 3


Benefits of breastfeeding pt1


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Card 4


Benefits of breastfeeding pt2


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Card 5


Drawbacks of breastfeeding


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