Biology option A.1 (Compounds of a human diet)

HideShow resource information
Essential nutrients
Amino acids /lysine and methionine), fatty acids (omega 3 and 6), minerals (iron, sodium, potassium, calcium), vitamins (vitamins A,C,D, folate), water
1 of 30
Essential amino acids
Proteins are made from chains of amino acids, and if certain amino acids are missing, the protein can not be made or function. 20 amino acids are necessary for most proteins. 9 amino acids are essential as the body can not synthesis them.
2 of 30
Consequences of protein deficiency malnutrition (PDM)
Caused by an inadequate supply of one or more essential amino acids. This casues a lack of plasma proteins in the blood, leading to retention of fluid in the tissues which causes abdominal bloating. This is coupled with wasting muscles, sparse hair.
3 of 30
Causes of PKU (Phenylketonuria)
Recessive genetic mutation on chromosome 12. This gene codes for the enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase, which is responsible for converting phenylalanine to tyrosine.
4 of 30
Causes of PKU (Phenylketonuria) pt2
When phenylalanine becomes excessive in the body, it is converted to phenylpyruvic acid, resulting in a high level of ketons in the blood which affect brain development
5 of 30
Diagnosis of PKU
Can be diagnosed early in life, just after birth, with a blood test
6 of 30
Treatment and symptoms of PKU
Low protein foods are recommended, no milk, meat, nuts, cheese and special formula milk. Symptoms may include tremors, seizures, skin rashes and brain damage.
7 of 30
Fatty acid general structure
Chain of 12-20 hydrocarbons with methyl group (CH3) on the omega end and a carboxyl (COOH) on the other end.
8 of 30
Saturated fatty acids structure
No double bonds between carbon atoms, solid at room temperature, carbon atoms carry as many hydrogen atoms as they can and are therefore saturated, molecule is straight, no kinks.
9 of 30
Monounsaturated fatty acids structure
One double bond between two carob atoms, two carbons do not carry the maximum amount of hydrogen atoms.
10 of 30
Polyunsaturated fatty acids structure
They have multiple double bonds between carbon atoms, they are liquid at room temperature, more than two carbons do not carry the max amount of hydrogen atoms, the molecules have many bends and kinks
11 of 30
Cis isomer structure
Hydrogen atoms attached to the double-bonded carbon atoms are on the same side. This makes the molecule bend.
12 of 30
Trans isomer structure
Hydrogen atoms attached to the carbon atoms are on different sides. Molecule is overall rather straight.
13 of 30
Hydrogenation of fatty acids
Polyunsaturated fatty acids can be hydrogenated, eliminating double bonds by adding hydrogen and turning them into saturated or trans fatty acids. This straightens the molecule. Found in processed food.
14 of 30
Diet rich in fatty acids pt1
Cis fatty acids are curved, and easily picked up by blood flow. Straight saturated fats lie against the wall of the blood vessel and are more difficult to pick up. This builds up and combined with cholesterol forms plaque, narrowing blood vessels.
15 of 30
Diet rich in fatty acids pt2
This narrowing increases blood pressure. A piece of plaque can break off and block the blood from flowing. This is a heart attack if it happens in coronary arteries and a stroke if in blood vessels nourishing the brain
16 of 30
Effects of saturated fatty acids
Raises harmful LDL cholesterol, leads to atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease.
17 of 30
Effects of unsaturated fatty acids (cis fats)
Promotes beneficial HDL cholesterol, inhibits harmful LDL cholesterol, omega-3 linked to brain development
18 of 30
Effects of unsaturated fatty acids (trans fats)
Significantly raises LDL cholesterol, strong links to atheroclerosis and heart disease.
19 of 30
Comparison of minerals and vitamins pt1
Minerals are inorganic, vitamins are organic. Vitamins are made from living organisms- plans and animals, minerals come from rocks, soil, sea water
20 of 30
Comparison of minerals and vitamins pt2
Minerals are in the form of ions (Na, Ca, Fe) while vitamins are compounds (Vitamin A: C20H30O) Both are needed to prevent deficiency disease
21 of 30
Researching Vitamin C daily intake (retrospective research)
Retrospective research: identify sufferers of Scurvy and determine levels of Vit C, was inexact as it was based on preventing disease, not promoting cellular functions.
22 of 30
Researching Vitamin C daily intake (Clinical trials)
Animal testing: usually on mice, they are given different levels of Vit C and their health is compared and is applied to humans.
23 of 30
Daily intake of Vitamin C
Common sources include citrus fruits and the recommended daily allowance (RDA) is 65-90mg. VitC can boost the immune system as it is involved in detoxification, also speeds injury recovery and protects against respiratory tract infections
24 of 30
Rebound malnutrition
Too high doses of vitamin C means the body can not use and story it. excess Vit C is extreted by the kidneys in the urine. Body gets used to excreting it, when VitC intake drops, the body keeps excreting, leaving vitC levels low.
25 of 30
Vitamin D (Sources)
Needed for formation of bones, can be made by skin in response to sunlight or eating foods rich in Vit D (COMELY: Cereal, oily fish, Milk, Egg, Liver, Yoghurt)
26 of 30
Vitamin D deficiency from insufficient sunlight exposure vs skin cancer
UV light causes skin to synthesise Vit D and insufficient sunlight can cause vitD deficiency. However, sunlight can cause sunburn and skin cancer. This can be avoided by vitamin d supplements.
27 of 30
Artificial dietary supplementation with iodine (consequences of iodine deficiency)
Iodine is needed for the hormone thyroxine from the thyroid gland. This hormone regulates the rate of metabolism and growth and insufficient levels of iodine causes swelling of the thyroid (goiter). Babies are born retarded .
28 of 30
Artificial dietary supplementation with iodine
Production of iodised salt achieves necessary dietary supplementation. This cost of doing this is minimal compared to cost of treating individuals|
29 of 30
Importance of fiber
Stimulates peristalsis as it gives food bulk due to being indigestible. Helps prevent constipation, helps regulate blood sugar, lowers cholesterol, lowers risk of intestinal cancer, toxins bind to fibre and are carried out of the body
30 of 30

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Essential amino acids

Back

Proteins are made from chains of amino acids, and if certain amino acids are missing, the protein can not be made or function. 20 amino acids are necessary for most proteins. 9 amino acids are essential as the body can not synthesis them.

Card 3

Front

Consequences of protein deficiency malnutrition (PDM)

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Causes of PKU (Phenylketonuria)

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Causes of PKU (Phenylketonuria) pt2

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Biology resources:

See all Biology resources »See all Biology option 1 (Compounds of a human diet) resources »