Biology One Part One

B1 part 1 AQA GCSE.

Based on MOST (not all is used intentionally) of the information in the book.

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What does 'metabolic rate' mean?
The rate of which all chemical reactions take place.
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How can one measure their metabolic rate?
Measuring one's oxygen consumption.
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Fat cells store fat. They are...
...inactive and have a low rate of respiration to ensure that they do not use their stored fat.
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Muscle cells are active. They need...
....energy from respiration to contract. Their rate of respiration is high.
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What factors affect the metabolic rate?
Height, weight and genes.
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What roles do the food groups play for nutrients?
Carbohydrates and fats are for energy, proteins for building cells and repairing tissues, mineral ions and and vitamins (in small portions) for healthy body function.
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What is water and fibre required for?
Cells are made up with 70% water which is lost through sweat, breath, urine etc. Fibre for preventing constipation and bowel cancer.
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What problem can one face with malnourishment?
A definciency disease like rickets, in which a lack of vitamin D causes the bones to become weak and bendy. Other symptoms include a curved spine and an enlarged skull.
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What is cholesterol required for?
Strengthening cell membranes, making vitamin D and creating sex hormones.
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What happens when your body has too much cholesterol?
Increased risk of heart disease, drugs called statins help reduce cholestrerol production in the liver. They are taken in the evening due to cholesterol production occuring during sleep. Statins inhibit an enzyme involved in making cholesterol.
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Who discovered the importance of hand hygiene in the 19th century?
Hungarian doctor: Ignaz Semmelweis.
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How did Semmelwies discover the importance of hand hygiene?
He noticed one maternity ward had higher a death rate than the other, that ward's doctors had come straight from dissecting bodies. He asked that they'd wash their hands between tasks and the rate dropped significantly.
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What is the standard requirement as part of a hospital today?
Visitors, nurses, doctors and patients must all wash their hands.
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What is a bacteria?
Mostly harmless, millions liive on our skin and inside us. They reproduce rapidly and produce toxins which make us feel ill. Some can cause death.
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What is a virus?
They are not made of cells nor do they perform life processes. They have to hijack cells to make copies of itself, these host cells burst and millions of viruses pour out and infect other hosts in a chain reaction.
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How do antibiotics work?
They are medicines that can kill bacteria, they are unique to a specific bacteria in which they can destroy.
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How does natural selection lead to resistance?
Antibiotics are taken, some die, some resist. Those that do survive multiply with the resisitant gene since they have no competition.
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How can we prevent the resistant bacteria from spreading?
By providing a smaller pescription over a delayed period of time to reduce the rate of resistant bacteria multipying.
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What was the problem with MRSA?
Methecillin is only used in extreme cases of infection, but this bacterium is resistant to it so deaths still occured. It lives on our skin and enters the body through wounds and incisions, therefore strict hygiene rules have taken place these days.
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Why don't antibiotics kill viruses?
Antibiotics interfere with the life processes of the bacteria, since a virus does not carry out these processes they are unharmed. It is hard to destroy viruses without damaging cells. Antivirals are used to make the host cells cease production.
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How are pathogens prevented from entering the body?
Barriers such as the skin, mucus, stomach acid and blood clotting.
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Name the two types of white blood cells and their functions?
1) Phagocytes: They engulf the pathogens 2) Lymphocytes: They produce antibodies or antitoxins.
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How do antibodies work?
Each strain of pathogen has a unique antigen (proteins) and the antibody has a unique shape that can lock onto the pathogen. Your immune system produces the correct set of antibodies which coat the pathogen which is then engulfed by phagocytes.
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What is natural immunisation?
When one has recovered from a infection, some antibodies retain the shape that can combat the pathogen so it is destroyed before it causes illness if it ever attacks one's body again.
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How does synthetic immusation work?
Inactive pathogens are inserted into the body, lymphocytes respond by making the correct antibodies since dead pathogens still have antigens on the surface. If it does occur, the active pathogens will enter the body and be stopped immediately.
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Name the two parts of the nervous system?
The CNS (brain and spinal cord) and the PNS (sense organs)
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How do reflex actions work?
Fast, automatic - the brain is too slow to react.
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What is the reflex action pathway?
Stimulus, Receptor Neurone, Sensory Neurone, Relay Neurone, Motor Neurone, Synapses, Effector, Response.
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How do effectors respond?
The muscle contracts, the glands secrete chemical substances.
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Why must we have fast reponses?
To act against danger or to find food.
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What is the menstrual cycle?
Pituitary gland produces FSH which causes eggs to mature (one per month). It also stimulates oestrogen production. Pituitary gland makes LH which causes ovulation and prevents FSH production. Progesterone maintains the uterus lining.
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Name a plant hormone.
Auxin.
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What are auxins used for?
Herbicides, rooting powder (making new roots), fruit ripening and dormancy control.
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What were the problems with Thalidomide?
As a sleeping pill for pregnant women, they took it regularly. Unfortunately the drug interferes with genes and the babies were born with short limbs.
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How does the tesing process for drugs work?
1) Labratory tests on human tissue and animals. 2) If safe, tested on voluntary humans. 3) Low then high does given to two groups; one of them given a placebo. 4) Niether the doctors or patients know who has the real drug to make it fair.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Measuring one's oxygen consumption.

Back

How can one measure their metabolic rate?

Card 3

Front

...inactive and have a low rate of respiration to ensure that they do not use their stored fat.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

....energy from respiration to contract. Their rate of respiration is high.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Height, weight and genes.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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