Biology Module 3

HideShow resource information
List all cell structures inside an animal cell
Nucleus / Cell Membrane / Ribosome / Cytoplasm / Mitochondria
1 of 50
List all cell structures inside a plant cell
Nucleus / Cytoplasm / Chloroplasts / Cell Wall / Vacuole / Cell Membrane
2 of 50
List all cell structures inside a bacterial cell
Cytoplasm / Cell Membrane / Single Circular Strand of DNA / Cell Wall
3 of 50
How did Watson and Crick create the DNA model?
X-ray data showed that DNA was a double helix formed from two chains wound together. Other data showed bases occurred in pairs. They used this information to build a DNA model
4 of 50
How can DNA replicate itself?
The DNA unzips to form two single strands. Free floating bases then join onto the two strands through complimentary base pairing. This creates two identical copies of the original molecule.
5 of 50
How do you create a protein from DNA?
An enzyme causes the DNA to unzip leaving the bases accessible. Matching free floating bases then attach and form mRNA. mRNA then goes to the ribosome where the bases code for a certain amino acid. The chain of acids now create a specific protein.
6 of 50
How many bases in a gene code for an amino acid?
7 of 50
How does DNA control a cell?
In cells certain genes are 'switched off' meaning only certain proteins can be made. The proteins that are produced, control the cells function.
8 of 50
List the 4 functions of different types of protein
Enzymes / Carrier Molecules / Hormones / Structural Proteins
9 of 50
How do enzymes work?
Enzymes have an active site where the catalyst of the reaction takes place. The active site is a specific shape and only compliments a certain substrate (lock and key). When the two match, a reaction takes place either joining or seperating.
10 of 50
What happens to enzymes if they are below or above their optimum temperature?
If below, then the enzymes lack energy to move around and so have less chance of collisions so less reactions. If above, then the enzymes will denature and will not be able to fulfill its purpose as its active site is no longer the right shape.
11 of 50
What happens to enzymes if they are above or below their optimum pH?
Either above or below optimum pH will denature an enzyme
12 of 50
What is the equation for Q10?
Q10 = rate at higher temperature / rate at lower temperature
13 of 50
What are causes of mutation?
Spontaneous / Radiation (X-rays, Gamma rays, UV) / Chemicals (smoking etc)
14 of 50
How can a change of DNA lead to a change in the protein it is coded for? Why might this be troublesome?
A change in DNA means a change in mRNA and so therefore a change in the order of amino acids meaning the wrong protein is made. If this particular protein was important, then the body may not be able to function as normal.
15 of 50
How can a mutation be beneficial?
The change could mean an improvement than compared to what the previous protein was. This gives the organism a better chance of survival and can be passed onto offspring.
16 of 50
List the advantages of being multicellular
Bigger / Allows for Cell Differentiation / More Complex (can be specifically adapted)
17 of 50
What requirements do multicellular beings have to have?
A System to Communicate with other cells / A System to provide Nutrients / A System that controls the Exchange of Substances with the Environment
18 of 50
What is the definition of mitosis?
When a cell reproduces itself by splitting to form two identical offspring
19 of 50
What happens during mitosis?
DNA in cell replicates forming double armed chromosomes. DNA then line up of the equator of cell and divide due to pulling cell fibres and each go to the opposite poles of cell. The cytoplasm divides and two new cells are made.
20 of 50
What is the definition of meiosis?
When a cell reproduces itself in order to create gametes - sperm and egg cells
21 of 50
What happens during meiosis?
DNA replicates into double armed chromosomes and organise each other into pairs. The pairs then split up during the first cell division. The double armed chromosomes then split during the second division. The 4 new cells are haploid.
22 of 50
How does fertilisation cause genetic variation?
Two haploid cells combine to form a diploid cell. The characteristics of the zygote are controlled by the combination of genes from each parent. The zygote will show traits from both parents but won't be exactly like them.
23 of 50
List the adaptations of a sperm cell
Small + Long Tails (easier to swim) / Lots of Mitochondria (provide energy to swim the distance) / Acrosome releases Enzymes which digest the egg cell membrane
24 of 50
How do plants grow in height?
Their cells elongate ( cell enlargement)
25 of 50
What are stem cells?
These are cells that are undifferentiated and so can develop into different types of cells depending on the instructions given. They can be found in human embryos (these can differentiate into anything) and adult bone marrow (limited differentiation)
26 of 50
List some arguments for stem cell research
Prevents embryos in fertility clinics being destroyed / Helps ill patients who all ready exist
27 of 50
List some arguments against stem cell research
Each embryo has the potential of human life and so shouldn't be experimented on
28 of 50
How can stem cells cure disorders?
Using embryo stem cells, stem cells can be grown for a specific use and used to replace old faulty cells such as nerve cells to cure brain damage
29 of 50
Describe the different phases of human growth
Infancy ( 0-2 yrs rapid growth) to Childhood (2-puberty steady growth) to Adolescence (puberty-completion rapid growth) to Adulthood (growth stops) to Old Age (65-death)
30 of 50
What is respiratory quotient?
It can be used to tell if someone is respiring anaerobically or aerobically. Greater than 1 normally means a person is respiring anaerobically. RQ = amount of CO2 produced / amount of O2 produced
31 of 50
What is the metabolic rate?
Metabolic rate is the amount of energy used at one time
32 of 50
What is blood made out of?
Plasma / Red Blood Cells / Water / Food Products / CO2 / Urea / Hormones / Antibodies
33 of 50
how are red blood cells adapted for its function?
It has a biconcave shape giving it a large surface area : volume ratio for absorbing/releasing more oxygen / Contains haemoglobin which is what oxygen attaches to / No nucleus, more space / Flexible - can pass through capilleries
34 of 50
How are arteries adapted for their function?
Strong and elastic to withstand high pressure / Thick muscle wall compared to lumen giving strength
35 of 50
How are capillaries adapted for their function?
Only one cell thick - easier for diffusion, shorter distance / permeable walls allow for diffusion
36 of 50
How are veins adapted for their function?
Not as thick as arteries - lower blood pressure / Bigger lumen to help blood flow despite low pressure / Have valves to keep blood flowing in the right direction.
37 of 50
List the advantages of having a double circulatory system
Allows for blood to be pumped out at a higher pressure meaning an increase in the rate of blood flow. This means more oxygen can be delivered to cells making it easier to maintain body temperature
38 of 50
What is selective breeding?
When humans artificially select the plants or animals that they'll breed so that desirable characteristics will be shown and remain in the population
39 of 50
What are the problems with selective breeding?
Health problems and harmful genetic disorders due to inbreeding as recessive alleles are more likely to build up as gene pool is limited / New diseases may affect entire population - lack of genetic variation
40 of 50
What is an example of genetic engineering?
Implanting beta-carotene into rice which humans change into vitamin A / Insulin production from bacteria / Resistance to herbicides etc put in desirable plants
41 of 50
What are the moral and ethical issues involved with genetic engineering?
Wrong to engineer others for human benefit (animal may suffer) / May progress to children leading to discrimination to genetic underclass / may impact future generations
42 of 50
What is the definition of a clone?
Clones are genetically identical organisms
43 of 50
What are the benefits of cloning?
Mass produce animals with desirable charcteristics / Used to clone embryos (using patient's body cells) for stem cell research - lowers risk of rejection
44 of 50
What are the risks of cloning?
New sciece -we don't know all the consequences / Evidence has shown that clones are not as healthy as the original.
45 of 50
What are the ethical issues of cloning humans?
Lots of surrogate pregnancies - multiple stillbitrhs and miscarriages / Clones are often unhealthy and die prematurely / Clone might be psychologically damaged if known they were a clone
46 of 50
How do you clone a plant?
Choose a plant based on characteristics. Removal of several small pieces of tissue from parent (fast growing root and shoot tips). Grow the tissue in a growth medium containing nutrients and hormones (must be aseptic). Move to compost once big enough
47 of 50
What is tissue culture?
Growth in an artificial medium of cells derived from living tissue
48 of 50
What are the advantages of cloning plants?
Characteristics are guaranteed to be prominent - no time or money wasted / Possible to mass produce plants that are hard to grow from a seed
49 of 50
What are the disadvantages of cloning plants?
Lack of genetic variation / Introduction of disease or change in environment will damage entire population as they are all clones
50 of 50

Other cards in this set

Card 2


List all cell structures inside a plant cell


Nucleus / Cytoplasm / Chloroplasts / Cell Wall / Vacuole / Cell Membrane

Card 3


List all cell structures inside a bacterial cell


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


How did Watson and Crick create the DNA model?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


How can DNA replicate itself?


Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards


No comments have yet been made

Similar Biology resources:

See all Biology resources »See all Cells, tissues and organs resources »