Biology Module 1

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How does Health differ from Fit?
Healthy - free from disease whereas... Fit - ability to do a physical activity
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How can you test fitness?
strength, speed, agility, flexibility and stamina (which tests cardiovascular fitness if you measure oxygen uptake during exercise and blood pressure)
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What is systolic and diastolic pressure?
S - when the heart contracts and blood pressure is at its highest / D - When the heart relaxes and blood pressure is at its lowest
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What is blood pressure measured in?
mmHg - mm of mecury
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What increases blood pressure?
smoking, being overweight, under stress for a long time, drinking too much alcohol
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What are the health problems related to high blood pressure?
In the brain can cause brain damage / Can cause strokes which leads to paralysis and loss of speech / In the kidney causing organ failure
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What are the health problems related to low blood pressure?
It causes poor circulation and so can, due to lack of oxygen and food in the brain, lead to dizziness and then fainting
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How does smoking increase blood pressure?
CO - combines with haemoglobin in RBC reducing their oxygen carrying ability. Heart beats faster to compensate (lack of O2 getting to cells) and so pressure increases / Nicotine - increases heart rate. More contractions, higher blood pressure
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What is wrong with having too much cholersterol?
An abundance of cholersterol leads to a build up in the arteries. This forms a plaque in the artery wall and so restricts blood flow as the artery has been narrowed which can lead to a heart attack.
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What is wrong with having a diet high in salt?
Too much salt leads to high blood pressure. This then damages the artery walls and encourages the build up of plaque. This can lead to a heart attack.
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What is cholesterol used for when in the right amounts?
Cholesterol is used to make cell membranes however, too much can lead to a blockage in an artery. Diets high in sat fat have been linked to high levels of cholesterol in blood
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What is coronary heart disease?
The heart muscle is supplied blood by the coronary arteries. I they are narrowed and then a thrombosis (blood clot) occurs, the heart is cut off from its oxygen supply. The heart then beats rapidly in an attempt to clear the blockage and get O2.
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What is the function of carbohydrates in the diet?
Carbohydrates are made up of simple sugars and so provide energy
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What is the function of fats in the diet?
Fats provide energy, act as an energy store and provide insulation
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What is the function of proteins in the diet?
Proteins are needed for growth and repair of tissue, and energy in emergencies
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What are the functions of vitamins and minerals in the diet?
They have various functions e.g vitamin C prevents scurvy and iron is needed to make haemoglobin for healthy blood
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What is the function of water in the diet?
Water prevents dehydration (where the body doesn't have enough water)
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What is the function of fibre in the diet?
Fibre is used to aid digestion and prevents constipation
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What are carbohydrates made up of?
Simple sugars like glucose and can be stored in the liver as glycogen or converted to fats
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What are fats made up of?
They are made up of fatty acids and glycerol. They can be stored around organs and under skin as adipose tissue
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What are proteins made up of?
The are made up of amino acids. They don't get stored. Amino acids cannot be made by the body so we have to get them from our diet.
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What is the difference between 1st and 2nd class proteins?
1st = from animals and contains essential amino acids / 2nd = from plants and don't contain all the essential amino acids
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Why does diet vary between different types of people due to physicality?
Age - children need more protein for growth and older people need more calcium to prevent osteoporosis / Gender - women need more iron to replace the iron lost in menstrual blood / P.E - those who are active need more protein and carbohydrates
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Why do some people have to have different diet?
Religion - Hindus don't eat cows, they're sacred / Medical - some people are intolerant to substances due to them lacking an enzyme to digest that food / Personal - e.g vegetarians either it's cruel or healthier
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What is kwashiorkor?
It is a disease caused by protein deficiency and so is a deficiency disease. A common symptom of it is a swollen stomach
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Why do developing countries have little amounts of protein?
Overpopulation - the demand for protein-rich food is greater than what is available, not everyone gets enough / Agriculture - Little money is invested into it and without the best farming techniques, it's hard to produce protein-rich food
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What is the equation for EAR?
EAR (g) = 0.6 x Body Mass (kg) - this is only an average and can vary depending on a persons needs
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What is the equation for BMI?
BMI = Body Mass (kg) / height x height (m) - this isn't always reliable as muscle weighs more than fat and the person may not be overweight. An alternative is to measure % Body Fat
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List the types of microorganisms that cause disease
Fungi - athlete's foot / Bacteria - cholera / Viruses - Flu / Protozoa - dysentry
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What is malaria?
Malaria is a protozoan that is carried by mosquitoes. The protozoan is a parasite and lives off the host often causing it harm.
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How does malaria spread?
It is carried by mosquitoes. Once a mozzie bites an infected animal, it transfers the parasite into the every other animal it bites through the blood stream. Mozzie's are vectors, they carry the parasite but aren't affected by it
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How can we reduce the spread of malaria?
Target mosquitoes. We can drain areas of water where we know they lay their eggs or spray insecticides / Introduce fish into the water so that it can eat mozzie larvae / People can be protected by mozzie nets and insecticides
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How does the immune system deal with invading pathogens?
Consume them - WBC can engulf the foreign body and digest them / Produce Antitoxins - these counteract the effect of any toxins produced / Produce Antibodies
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How do antibodies defeat pathogens?
Each pathogen has unique antigens on its surface. A WBC creates antibodies (when meeting a foreign pathogen) that compliment the pathogen's antigens allowing them to lock on and kill the cell. Memory cells remember the shape of antibody for future
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How does immunisation work?
Inject a dead or inactive pathogen into the body. These carry antibodies so even though they're harmless, the immune system will still react and produce antibodies. Memory cells remember shape in case an active one comes along
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What two types of immunity are there?
Active - when the immune system creates its own antibodies after a stimulation. Includes natural and artificial immunity. This is usually permanent / Passive - when you use antibodies made by another. It is only temporary. E.g breast milk to babies
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What are the benefits of immunisation?
They help prevent you getting ill / If most people are immunised, then the disease is harder to spread
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What are the risks of immunisation?
They have short term side effects such as sweelin and redness and feeling under the weather / You can't be vaccinated if you're already ill - immune system is alerady weak / some people think the vaccinations cause disorders e.g MMR and autsim link
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How do antivirals work?
The prevent the virus from reproducing so the immune system doesn't have to work as hard
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What are the steps for testing new drugs?
1) Computer models simulate a result / 2)Testing on human tissue / 3) Testing on animals / 4) Human clinical trials
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What does it mean when someone is addicted to a drug?
It means they have a craving or psychological need for a drug. The addict must regularly take the drug and experience the effects or otherwise suffer withdrawal symptoms such as shaking and sickness
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What happens when a person takes a drug over a long time?
They slowly become used to it meaning they will need larger doses to experience the same effect
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What are depressants?
They decrease the activity of the brain, which slows down nervous system responses causing slow reactions and poor judgement of distances and speed e.g alcohol, solvents and temazepam
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What are stimulants?
They increase brain activity and make a person feel more alert and awake. They are often used to treat depression e.g nicotine, ecstasy and caffeine
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What are painkillers?
They reduce the number of painful stimuli at the nerve endings near an injury e.g aspirin and paracetamol
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What are performance enhancers?
They help build up muscle and allow athletes to train harder. They are banned by most sports organisations e.g anabolic steroids (testosterone)
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What are hallucinogens?
They distort what is seen and heard by altering the pathways that the brain sends messages along e.g LSD
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How is alcohol poisonous?
When broken down by enzymes, in the liver, the products are toxic. If too much is drunk over a long period of tie, it will cause death to liver cells, forming scar tissue which prevents blood reaching the liver. This means liver cannot clean blood
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What are the effects of alcohol?
Dehydration / Impaired judgement / Poor balance / Slurred speech / Sleepiness / Poor coordination
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What is the problem with tar from smoking?
Tar builds up and collects in the lungs. It's full of toxic chemicals, some are carcinogens meaning they are more likely to mutate DNA causing cell division to go out of control and form malignant tumours
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What is smoker's cough?
This is when the smoke from cigarettes kills the cilia cells lining the trachea, bronchi and bronchioles. The cilia can no longer move mucus up to the top to be swallowed and so it remains in the windpipe causing a person to cough to clear it.
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What is emphysema?
When the longs lose their elasticity. This is often caused by the smoke in smoking
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Why shouldn't pregnant women smoke?
Due to the low oxygen levels in the blood (caused by CO). The foetus will be deprived of oxygen and so will have a low birth weight
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List all the parts of the eye
Retina / Optic Nerve / Lens / Ciliary Muscles / Suspensory Ligaments / Iris / Pupil / Cornea
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How do we see things?
The cornea refracts light into the eye. The iris limits how much light enters the pupil. The lens refracts the light/image onto the retina. The retina has cones and rods which detect light and colour. The optic nerve carries these impulses to brain
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How do we focus on far objects?
Distant objects need less refraction as light waves are not spreading put as much. Ciliary muscles relax so suspensory ligaments tighten. The lens becomes stretched out and so less refraction occurs.
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How do we focus on near-by objects?
Close objects need more refraction as light waves are spreading out more. Ciliary muscles tighten and suspensory ligaments relax. The lens the becomes more rounded so light is refracted more
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What is the problem if people are short-sighted?
Their lens is the wrong shape and so refracts the light too much or the eyeball is too long. Distant objects are brought into focus in front of the retina. Concave lenses correct this problem
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What is the problem if people are long-sighted?
Their lens is the wrong shape and so the light isn't refracted enough or the eyeball is too short. Near objects focus behind the retina. Convex lenses fix this problem
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What is the CNS?
Central Nervous System - it consists of the brain and spinal cord. Its job is to coordinate information
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Label all the parts of a motor neurone
Cell Body / Dendrites / Axon / Myelin Sheath / Branched Endings / Nucleus
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What is the reflex arc?
It is an involuntary reaction to a stimulus which is a way for the body to protect itself
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Describe the reflex arc
Stimulus - change in surroundings / Receptor - Detects stimulus, changes energy into nerve impulses / Coordinator - receptors link to the CNS / Effector - causes the response / Response - reaction to stimulus
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Why are reflex arc involuntary?
So you don't waste time thinking about your decision and react faster to the danger
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How are neurones adapted to transmit impulses faster?
They are long so less time is wasted transferring to the next neurone / Insulating sheath speeds up the impulse / Multiple dendrites connect to other neurones so impulse spreads out faster
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How is an impulse transmitted across a synapse?
At the end, the electrical impulse triggers the release of neurotransmitters which diffuses across the synapse towards the second neurone. When it reaches, it stimulates an impulse carrying on the signal
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How do drugs effect the release of neurotransmitters?
Depressants bind with receptor molecules on the membrane of 2nd neurone. This blocks the electrical impulse decreasing brain activity / Stimulants increases the amount of neurotransmitter produced so increases frequency of impulses along neurone 2
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What is homeostasis?
It is the maintaing of a constant internal environment - this involves balancing the levels of CO2, water and body temperature
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What is negative feedback?
Changes in the environment trigger a response that counteracts the changes. This means the internal environment tends to stay around a normal level at which cells work best
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What is the hypothalamus?
The hypothalamus is a part of your brain which monitors and controls body temperature using nerves and hormones
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What can happen if the body gets too hot?
A person can get dehydrated and could cause a heat stroke. If this continues, you could eventually die
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How does the body try to cool down?
Hairs lie flat / Lots of sweat is produced - sweat evaporating requires heat energy / Vasodilation - blood vessels widen near the surface of the skin so more heat is radiated into its surroundings
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What can happen if the body gets too cold?
A person can suffer from hypothermia and eventually death if exposed to cold for a long time
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How does the body try to warm up?
Hairs stand on end - try to trap an insulating layer of air / Very little sweat is produced / Shivering - movement generates heat / Vasoconstriction - less heat is radiated to surroundings as blood vessels near skin surface constrict
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How can glucose be removed from the blood?
Normal respiration / Vigorous exercise
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What happens if there is too much/little glucose in the blood?
The pancreas monitors blood sugar levels. Too much - it releases insulin which travels to the liver which makes it turn glucose into glycogen, taking glucose out of the blood, lowering blood sugar levels. Too little - the opposite occurs
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Why are hormone reactions slower than electrical impulses?
Homones travel in the blood and so take a while to get to their destination whereas electrical impulses are a lot faster when travelling along neurones. This means it takes longer for the body to respond to a hormone than an impulse
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What is type 1 diabetes and how is it controlled?
The pancreas produces little to no insulin - the blood sugar levels could rise to a point where it could kill them. Prevention - diabetics inject insulin varying in amount depending on diet and recent exersice
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What is type 2 diabetes and how is it controlled?
The person has become resistant to insulin. Prevention - avoid foods rich in simple carbohydrates and exersice. This type of diabetes is often acquired in old age due to diet and/or obesity
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How are shoots positively phototropic?
When a shoot tip is exposed to light, it accumulates more auxin on the shaded side. This make cells elongate on the shaded side and so bends the plant towards the light allowing the leaves to get as much light as possible
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How are shoots negatively geotropic?
When lying sideways, gravity produces an unequal distribution of auxin in the tip meaning more is on the underside. This causes the lower side to grow faster upwards against gravity
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How are roots positively geotropic?
A root growing sideways will always have more auxin on the lower side. This inhibits growth meaning cells on top keep growing bending the root down towards gravity
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How are roots negatively phototropic?
If a root is exposed to light, the auxin will accumulate on the shaded side. This inhibits growth and cells on top elongate bending the root away from the light
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What are the commercial uses of plant hormones?
Selective weedkillers - weeds are often broad-leaves. Broad leaves grow too fast and die / Rooting Powder - allows plant cutting to grow roots / Ripening of Fruit - doesn't spoil during transport / Control Dormancy - seeds germinate when shouldn't
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What features are determined by genes and environment? Give examples
Health - some people are more likely to be diseased but lifestyle also plays a part / Intelligence - Some believe you maximum IQ is set but whether this is achieved depends on environment / P.A - genes determine potential but training achieves it
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What is an allele? (al-ee-ul)
A different version of the same gene
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What must happen for an organism to display a recessive characteristic?
Both alleles must be recessive homozygous
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If a person has a recessive trait dominated by a dominant gene, what is that person called especially if that recessive gene is a genetic disease?
They are called a carrier
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What are the issues raised with genetic disorders?
Should families be tested? Would this be fair on couples and future children? / Is it right to prevent someone having children if they are a carrier of a disease? / If a foetus is shown to possess harmful traits, should they be aborted?
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Card 2

Front

How can you test fitness?

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strength, speed, agility, flexibility and stamina (which tests cardiovascular fitness if you measure oxygen uptake during exercise and blood pressure)

Card 3

Front

What is systolic and diastolic pressure?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is blood pressure measured in?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What increases blood pressure?

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Preview of the front of card 5
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