Additional Biology Keywords

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Isolation
Species separated by a barrier.
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Genetic Variation
Where each population has a wide range of alleles that control their characteristics.
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Natural Selection
Where the alleles that help an organism to survive are selected in each population.
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Speciation
The populations become so different that they cannot successfully interbreed.
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Extinction
The permanent loss of all members of a species.
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Species
Organisms with similar characteristics that can successfully interbreed to produce fertile offspring.
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Stem Cell
An unspecialised cell.
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Phenotype
Physical appearance of the characteristic.
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Genotype
The genetic makeup (DD, Dd, dd).
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Homozygous
Both alleles are the same (DD, dd).
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Heterozygous
The two alleles are different.
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Allele
A version of a particular gene.
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Gametes
Sex cells (sperm , eggs)
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Asexual Reproduction
Reproduction that involves only one individual. The offspring are identical to the parent.
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DNA
The material inside the nucleus that carries the genetic information.
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Gene
A short section of DNA carrying genetic information.
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Oxygen Debt
The extra oxygen that must be taken into the body, after exercise has stopped, to complete the aerobic respiration of Lactic Acid.
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Anaerobic Respiration
Happens without oxygen, when there's not enough of it for aerobic respiration.
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Glycogen
The substance glucose is stored as in the muscles.
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Environment
All the conditions that surround a living organism.
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Habitat
The place where an organism lives.
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Population
All the members of a species that live in a habitat.
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Community
All the populations of different organisms that live in a habitat.
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Ecosytem
The community and the habitat in which it lives.
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Independant Variable
The one that's being tested.
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Dependant Variable
The one you measure.
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Transect
A line across a habitat or part of a habitat.
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Quadrat
A square made of wire, subdivided into a grid.
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Roots
Absorb water and minerals from the soil.
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Stem
Transport minerals around the plant.
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Leaves
Main organ for photosynthesis.
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Epidermal Tissue
Covers the plant.
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Mesophyll
Carries out photosynthesis.
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Xylem
Transports minerals around the plant.
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Phloem
Transports products of photosynthesis.
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Pancreas and Salivary Glands
Produce digestive juices.
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Stomach
Digests food (mixes with acids and enzymes).
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Liver
Produces the alkaline Bile to neutralise stomach acid.
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Small Intestine
Digests/Absorbs soluble foods.
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Large Intestine
Absorbs water from undigested food, and produces faeces.
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Nucleus (Animal & Plant Cells)
Contains genetic material --> Controls cell activities.
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Cytoplasm (Animal & Plant Cells)
Chemical processes take place --> Controlled by enzymes.
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Cell Membrane (Animal & Plant Cells)
Controlls movement of substances into/out of the cell.
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Mitochondria (Animal & Plant Cells)
Where energy is released from respiration.
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Ribosomes (Animal & Plant Cells)
Make proteins from amino acids (protein synthesis)
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Cell Wall (Plant Cells)
Strengthens the cell.
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Chloroplasts (Plant Cells)
Contain chlorophyll which absorb light energy for photosynthesis.
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Permanent (sap) Vacuole (Plant Cells)
Filled with cell sap to keep cell turgid.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Where each population has a wide range of alleles that control their characteristics.

Back

Genetic Variation

Card 3

Front

Where the alleles that help an organism to survive are selected in each population.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

The populations become so different that they cannot successfully interbreed.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

The permanent loss of all members of a species.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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