Biology Key Words pt2

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  • Created by: Jinesha
  • Created on: 11-05-15 20:24
Nucleus
Control the cell's activities
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Cytoplasm
Where many chemical reactions take place
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Cell membrane
Controls the movement of materials in and out of the cell
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Mitochondria
Where energy is released during aerobic respiration
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Ribosomes
Where protein synthesis takes place
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Cell wall
Made of cellulose for support
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Chloroplasts
Contains Chlorophyll for photosynthesis; the chloroplasts absorb light energy to make food
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Specialized
Adapted for a particular function
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Diffusion
Net movement of particles from a higher concentration to a lower concentration along a concentration gradient
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Concentration gradient
Where two areas have different concentrations of the same thing
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Chlorophyll
This is the green chemical found in plant cells
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Multicellular organisms
Organisms that consist of more than one cell, in contrast to single-celled organisms
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Epidemic
A widespread occurrence of an infectious disease in a community at a particular time
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Epidermal tissue
The tissue of the Epidermis - the outer layer of an organism
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Epithelial tissue
Tissue made up of relatively unspecialised cells which line the tubes and organs of the body
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Mesophyll tissue
The tissue in a green plant where photosynthesis takes place
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Salivary gland
Gland in the mouth which produces saliva containing the enzyme amylase
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Mineral ion
Chemical needed in small amounts as part of a balanced diet to keep the body healthy
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Nitrate ion
Ion which is needed by plants to make proteins
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Biomass
Biological material obtained from living or recently living plant matter that can be processed into electricity, fuel and heat
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Quadrat
A piece of apparatus for sampling organisms in the field
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Enzymes
Biological catalysts
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Active site
A small port in an enzyme where substrate molecules bind and undergo a chemical reaction
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Denatured
The enzyme stops working because the active site changes shape
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Bile
A greenish-brown alkaline fluid which helps digestion and is secreted by the liver and stored in the gall bladder
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Biological detergents
Contain proteases and lipases that digest food stains. They work at lower temperatures than ordinary washing powders. This saves energy and money spent on electricity
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Isomerase
Used to convert glucose syrup into fructose syrup
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Fructose syrup
Liquid sweetener used in the manufacturing of foods and beverages
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Glycogen
The main way the body stores glucose for later use
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Glycerol
Building blocks of lipids
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Oxygen debt
A temporary oxygen shortage in the body tissues arising from exercise
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Mitosis
Type of cell division that results in two daughter cells each having the same number and kind of chromosomes as the parent nucleus
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Meiosis
A type of cell division that results in four daughter cells each with half the number of chromosomes of the parent cell
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Allele
A version of a particular gene
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Stem cells
Undifferentiated biological cells that can differentiate into specialized cells and can divide (through mitosis) to produce more stem cells
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Ovum
A mature female reproductive cell
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Phenotype
Physical appearance of the characteristic
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Genotype
The genetic make-up - which alleles does the individual inherit?
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Homozygous
Both alleles are the same DD or dd
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Heterozygous
The two alleles are different Dd
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Extiction
Species which once existed has completely died out
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Geographic isolation
Refers to a population of animals, plants, or other organisms that are separated from exchanging genetic material with other organisms of the same species
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Speciation
When the two populations can no longer successfully interbreed
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Where many chemical reactions take place

Back

Cytoplasm

Card 3

Front

Controls the movement of materials in and out of the cell

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Where energy is released during aerobic respiration

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Where protein synthesis takes place

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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