Biology key words

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  • Created by: Algrace8
  • Created on: 08-04-15 18:33
Abiotic
An ecological factor that makes up part of the non-biological environment of an organism, e.g. temp, pH e.t.c.
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Acetylcholine
One of a group of chemicals, called neurotransmitters, released by neurones. It diffuses across the synapse between adjacent neurones and so passes an impulse from one neurone to the next.
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Action potential
Change that occurs in the electrical charge across the membrane of an axon when it is stimulated and a nerve impose passes.
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Actin
Filamentous protein which is involved in contraction within cells, especially muscle cells.
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Activation energy
Energy required to bring about a chemical reaction. The activation energy is lowered by the presence of enzymes.
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Active transport
Movement of a substance across a membrane from a region where it is in a low concentration to a region where it is in a high concentration. The process requires ATP.
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ATP
An activated nucleotide found in all living cells that acts as an energy carrier. The hydrolysis of ATP leads to the formation of ADP and inorganic phosphate, with the release of energy.
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Adrenaline
A hormone produced by the adrenal glands in times of stress that prepares the body for an emergency.
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Aerobic
Connected with the presence of oxygen. Aerobic respiration requires oxygen to release energy from glucose and other foods.
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Allele
One form of a gene. E.g. 2 alleles for shape of pea seeds: one for round, one for wrinkled.
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Allele frequency
The number of times an allele occurs within the gene pool.
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Allergen
A normally harmless substance that causes the immune system to produce an immune response.
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Anaerobic
Connected with the absence of oxygen. Anaerobic respiration releases energy from glucose and other foods without the presence of oxygen.
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Antibiotic resistance
The development, in populations of microorganisms, of mechanisms that prevent antibiotics killing them.
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Antibody
A protein produced by lymphocytes in response to the presence of a specific antigen.
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Anticodon
A sequence of 3 adjacent nucleotides on a molecule of transfer RNA that is complementary to a particular codon on a messenger RNA molecule.
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Antigen
A molecule that triggers an immune response by causing lymphocytes to produce specific antibodies which bind to it.
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Autonomic nervous system
Part of the nervous system, controlling the muscles and glands, that is not under voluntary control.
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Axon
A process extending from a neurone that conducts action potentials away from the cell body.
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Biodiversity
The range and variety of living organisms within a particular area.
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Biomass
The total mass of living material in a specific area at a given time. It is usually measured as dry mass because the amount of water in an organism is very variable.
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Biotic
An ecological factor that makes up part of the living environment of an organism. E.g. food, predation e.t.c.
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Calvin cycle
A biochemical pathway that forms part of the light-independent reaction of photosynthesis, during which carbon dioxide is reduced to form carbohydrate.
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Cardiac muscle
Type of muscle found only in the heart. It has fewer striations than skeletal muscle and can contract continuously throughout life without stimulation by nerve impulses.
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Clone
A group of genetically identical organisms formed from a single parent as a result or asexual reproduction or by artificial means.
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Cholinesterase
Enzyme that breaks down and therefore inactivated the neurotransmitter, acetylcholine, in the synapse.
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Climax community
The organisms that make up the final stage of succession.
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Co-dominance
Condition in which both alleles for one gene in a heterozygous organism contribute to the phenotype.
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Codon
A sequence of 3 adjacent nucleotides in mRNA that codes for one amino acid.
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Community
The organisms of all species that live in the same area.
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Condensation reaction
Chemical reaction in which 2 molecules combine to form a more complex one with the elimination of a single substance, usually water. Many biological polymers are formed by condensation reactions.
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Conservation
Method of maintaining ecosystems and the living organisms that occupy them. It requires planning and organisation to make best use of resources while preserving the natural landscape and wildlife.
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Consumer
Any organism that gains energy by eating another. Organisms feeding on plants are primary consumers and those feeding on primary consumers are secondary consumers.
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Continuous variation
Variation in which organisms do not fall into distinct categories, but rather there are graduations from one extreme to the other, e.g. height in humans.
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Cuticle
Exposed non-cellular outer layer of certain animals and the leaves of plants. It is waxy and impermeable to water. It therefore helps to reduce water loss.
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Cystic fibrosis
Inherited disease where body produces abnormally thick mucus, obstructing breathing passages and preventing secretion of pancreatic enzymes. A recessive condition leading to production of non-functioning membrane protein needed to transport chloride.
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Deciduous
Term applied to plants that shed all their leaves in one season.
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Denaturation
Permanent changes to the structure, and hence the 3-D shape, of a protein due to factors such as changes in temp or pH.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

One of a group of chemicals, called neurotransmitters, released by neurones. It diffuses across the synapse between adjacent neurones and so passes an impulse from one neurone to the next.

Back

Acetylcholine

Card 3

Front

Change that occurs in the electrical charge across the membrane of an axon when it is stimulated and a nerve impose passes.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Filamentous protein which is involved in contraction within cells, especially muscle cells.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Energy required to bring about a chemical reaction. The activation energy is lowered by the presence of enzymes.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

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