Biology Key Terms (A-C)

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alpha helix
a protein secondary structure - right handed spiral held in place by the hydrogen bonds between adjacent C=O and NH groups
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Activation energy
the level of energy require to enable a reaction to take place
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Active immunity
Immunity that is acquired by activation of the immune system
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Active site
the area on a enzyme to which the substrate binds
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Active transport
movement of substances across a p.p membrane against the concentration gradient, requires ATP
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a nitrogen containing organic base found in nucleic acid
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describes tissues consisting of cells that store fat/lipids
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An attractive force between substances/particles
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a version of a gene
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speciation due to organisms of a species being separated by geographical barriers so that over time members of the two populations become so different that they cannot interbreed and are considered to be two different species
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Amino acid
an organic compound that contains both an amino group (-NH2) and a carboxyl group (-COOH)
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an enzyme that catalyses hydrolysis of starch
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part of a starch molecule consisting of thousands of glucose residue bonded together
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in mitosis the stage when the newly separated chromatids are pulled towards opposite poles of the nuclear spindle
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a result that does not fit the pattern due to error
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molecules produced by microorganisms that kill/limit the growth of other microorganisms
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protein molecules released by the immune system in response to an antigen - capable of neutralising the effects of the antigen
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a foreign molecule (protein or glycoprotein) that provokes an immune response
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Antigen-presenting cell
a macrophage that has ingested a pathogen and displays the pathogen's antigens on its cell surface membrane
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Apoplast pathway
the route taken by water between the cells/through the cell walls of plants
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hardening of the artery walls and loss of elasticity caused by atherosclerosis and deposition of calcium
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Artificial immunity
immunity acquires as a result of deliberate exposure to antigens or by the injection of antibodies
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Asexual reproduction
the production of genetically identical new organisms by a single 'parent' organism
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Artificial selection
selective breeding - the process of improving crop or domesticated animal by breeding from individuals with desired characteristics
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The use of comparative studies or samples to determine the concentration or quantity of a substrate in a sample
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Incorporation, in animals this is the digestion of a simple molecule to be used in metabolism, in plants this is the use of carbon with carbon dioxide to make assimilates
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the deposition of fatty substances in the lining of arteries to form an atheroma
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adenosine triphosphate - a temporary store of energy in organisms
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Atrioventricular node (AVN)
tissue in the septum of the heart that conducts electrical stimulate
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Atrioventricular vales
valves between the atria and ventricles to prevent backflow of blood
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an organism that makes its own food from simple inorganic molecules
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Base pairing rules
complementary base pairing between nitrogenous bases in nucleic acids
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Benedict's test
a test for reducing sugars, heated to 80 degrees with Ben. reagent, change from blue to red/orange precipitate
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Binary fission
method of cell division in bacteria
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Bionomial system
a system of naming living things using two latin words, the genus name and the specific name
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the number and variety of living things to be found in the world, in an ecosystem or in a habitat
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Biuret test
a biochemical test for the presence of protein
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Bohr shift/effect
the effect of carbon dioxide concentration on the affinity of haemoglobin from oxygen - shift down and to the right
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a chemical system that resists changes in pH by maintaining a constant level of hydrogen ions in a solution
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to determing the quantity of a substance in a solution by taking readings from solutions containing known amounts of the the solution and constructing a calibration curve on a graph.
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plant tissue in the stem and root of plants that contains dividing cells
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the molecule resulting from a combination of carbon dioxide and haemoglobin
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a substance which causes cancer
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Cardiac cycle
the sequences of events making one heartbeat
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an animal that eats meat
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Cardiac muscle
the muscle found in the hearts that is myogenic
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Carrier protein
a protein found in membranes that carry specific ions through
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Casparian strip
a strip of waterproof material (suberin) that blocks the apoplast pathway
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Cell signalling
processes that lead to communication and coordination between cells
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a carbohydrate polymer that forms plant walls
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an organelle from which spindle fibres develop during cell division
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Channel protein
a protein pore that spans the membrane through which small, non-charged ions can pass
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the movement of cells or organisms towards or away from a particular chemical
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Chloride shift
the movement of chloride ions into RBC to balance the loss of hydrocarbonate ions
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pigments found in chloroplasts on a plant. Each consisting of a hydrocarbon tail and a porphyrin ring head with a magnesium atom, absorbs red and blue light and reflects green
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an organelle found in plants which contains chlorophyll and is responsible for photosynthesis
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a lipid molecule found in all cell membranes involved in the synthesis of steroid hormones
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a replicates chromosome appears as 2 identical stands = chromatid
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material staining dark red in the nucleus during interphase, consists of nucleic acids and proteins. Chromatin condenses into chromosomes
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short hair like extensions typically 2-10 micrometers long and 0.25 in diameter, used for locomotion
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Ciliated epithelium
epithelial cells that have cilia on their surface
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taxonomic group used in classification
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the organisation of living things into groups according to shared features
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Clonal expansion
the division of selected cells by mitosis to increase their numbers
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Clonal selection
the selection of cells with a specific receptor site
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genetically identical cells or individuals
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An organic non-protein molecule that binds temporarily with substrate to an enzymes active site, essential for enzyme activity
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the attraction between water molecules due to hydrogen bonding
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a molecule or ion that helps an enzyme to work
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a structural fibrous protein found in connection tissue, bones skin and cartilage
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Companion cell
a cell in the phloem involved in actively loading sucrose into the sieve tube elements
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Competitive inhibitor
a substance that reduces the rate of an enzyme- controlled reaction by binding to the enzymes active site
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Concentration gradient
the difference in concentration of a substance between two regions
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a type of chemical reaction in which two molecules are joined by a covalent bond to form a larger molecule, water is released
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Conservation ex situ
conservation in areas other than the natural habitat
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Conservation in situ
conservation in the natural habitat
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Continuous variation
variation between living organism where there is a range of intermediates
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Coronary arteries
Arteries that carry blood to the heart
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Cotransporter protein
a protein in a cell membrane that allows the movement of one molecule when linked to the movement of a another molecule in the same direction by A.T
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Covalent bond
a chemical bond formed by the sharing of one or more electrons
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Card 2


the level of energy require to enable a reaction to take place


Activation energy

Card 3


Immunity that is acquired by activation of the immune system


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Card 4


the area on a enzyme to which the substrate binds


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Card 5


movement of substances across a p.p membrane against the concentration gradient, requires ATP


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