Biology Flashcards


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Name 4 items that living things need to survive?
1.Oxygen 2.Glucose 3.Proteins 4.Fats 5.Minerals
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What is oxygen needed for?
Aerobic respiration
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What is glucose needed for?
A source of energy
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What are proteins needed for?
Growth/Repair
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What are fats needed for?
Making membranes and storing energy
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What are Minerals needed for?
Maintaining water potential/enzyme action
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3 things that make for an efficient exchange surface?
Large SA 1.Thin Barrier 2.Active transport system 3.Specialised exchange surfaces
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Where does gas exchange occur in the lungs?
Alveoli
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How are the alveoli adapted?
1.Large SA 2.Permeable barrier to oxygen and CO2 3.Thin Barrier
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What is spirometry?
The measurement of breath
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What is tidal volume?
Each breath at rest
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What is residual volume?
Amount left after 1 breath
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What is dead space?
Amount of air in trachea, bronchioles, and bronchus
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What is vital capacity?
Amount you can breath out in 1 breath
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What is inspiratory reserve volume?
Amount of air remaining in lungs after a breath in
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What is expiratory reserve volume?
Amount of air remaining in lungs after a breath out
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Describe inspiration?
1.Intercostal and Diaphragm muscles contract 2.Ribcage moves up and out 3.Lung pressure decreases 4.Air flows into lungs
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Describe expiration?
1.Intercostal and diaphragm muscles relax 2.Ribcage moves downwards and inwards 3.Air pressure increases 4.Air forced out of lungs
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What circulatory system do fish have?
Singular circulatory system
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What circulatory system do mammals have?
Double circulatory system
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Describe a double circulatory system?
The blood passes through the heart TWICE for a complete circuit of the body
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Describe a single circulatory system?
Blood only passes through the heart ONCE for each complete circuit of the body
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What is an open circulatory system?
Blood reaches the entire body in vessels (found in insects)
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Describe an artery?
1.Small lumen 2.Thick elastic fibres 3.Folded endothelium
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Describe a vein?
1.Large lumen 2.Thin elastic fibres 3.Unfolded endothelium 4.Valves present
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Describe a capillary?
Just an endothelium (one cell thick)
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Describe how a heartbeat occurs?
SAN makes electrical charge (contracting atria) -> Travels to AVN -> AVN continues it to bundle of his -> Purkyne Tissue (contracting ventricles)
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What is the SAN?
Sino-atrial node
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What is the AVN?
Atrio-ventricular node
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What is the function of the red blood cell?
Transport oxygen around the body
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What is the function of the neutrophils (phagocytes)?
Engulf/Destroy pathogens
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What is the function of lymphocytes?
Produce antibodies and antitoxins
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What is the function of platelets?
Blood clotting/Preventing blood loss
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What is the function of plasma?
Transporting substances around the body
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is oxygen needed for?

Back

Aerobic respiration

Card 3

Front

What is glucose needed for?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are proteins needed for?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are fats needed for?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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