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  • Created by: CashewTom
  • Created on: 04-11-13 23:32
Factors that affect diffusion:
Surface area, Thin barrier, Fresh supplies of molecules on one side(maintain concentration gradient), Removal of molecules on other side (Same reason)
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How the lungs are adapted for exchange:
Large surface area, Permeable barrier, Thin barrier to reduce diffusion distance, Maintaining the diffusion gradient
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Stages of Inhaling (Inspiration)
Diaphragm contracts, Intercostal muscles contract, Volume of chest cavity increases, Pressure drops below atmospheric, air moves into lungs
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Stages of Exhaling (Expiration)
Diaphragm relaxes, Intercostal muscles relax, Volume of chest cavity decreases, Pressure in lungs increases, Air moves out of lungs
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Tidal volume
Volume of air moved in and out of lungs with each breath at rest
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Vital Capacity
Largest volume of air moved in and out of lungs in any one breath
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Residual volume
the volume of air that always remains in the lungs even after the biggest possible exhalation
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Dead space
the air in the bronchioles, bronchi and trachea. no gas exchange between this air and the blood
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Inspiratory reserve volume
volume of air that can be breathed in above the normal tidal volume
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Expiratory reserve volume
volume of air that can be breathed out above the normal tidal volume
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Single circulatory
Heart --> Gills --> Body --> Heart
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Double circulatory
Heart --> Body --> Heart --> Lungs --> Heart
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Left Atrium
Collects the oxygenated blood and pumps it to the left ventricle
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Semi-lunar valves
Prevent the backflow of blood from the arteries into the ventricles
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Vena Cava
Carries deoxygenated blood from the body to the right atrium
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Left Ventricle
Pumps oxygenated blood to the body via the aorta
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Right ventricle
pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs
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Pulmonary artery
carries deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle to the lungs
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Aorta
Carries the oxygenated blood from the left ventricle to the rest of the body
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Right atrium
collects deoxygenated blood and pumps it to the right ventricle
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Pulmonary veins
Carry oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium
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Septum
Separates the left and right sides of the heart
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Atrio ventricular valves
prevent backflow of blood into the atria when the ventricles contract
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Thickness of capillary walls
one cell thick (faster diffusion)
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What is used as a filter in a spirometer?
Soda lime
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

How the lungs are adapted for exchange:

Back

Large surface area, Permeable barrier, Thin barrier to reduce diffusion distance, Maintaining the diffusion gradient

Card 3

Front

Stages of Inhaling (Inspiration)

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Stages of Exhaling (Expiration)

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Tidal volume

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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