Biology Flash Cards

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What 3 things is the internal skeleton used for?
Support, Movement, Protection of vital organs.
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What is bone made of?
Rigid tissues.
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What does muscle do?
Contracts and relaxes.
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What do ligaments do?
Connect bones together in a joint.
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What are tendons?
They're tough, fibrous, elastic connective tissues.
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How do muscles work?
By contracting and relaxing in antagonistic pairs.
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What are joints covered in? and what does this help with?
Cartilage and it stops bones rubbing together.
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What is between each joint?
Synovial fluid.
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What 5 things are needed by a trainer before the start of an exercise programme?
Tobacco consumption, Alcohol consumption, Current medication, Family medical history and Previous treatments.
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What's the body mass index equation?
BMI= Body mass(kg)/Height(m)^2.
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What 3 things can someone do to themselves by doing too much exercise?
Sprains, Dislocations, Torn ligaments or tendons.
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What are the 3 symptoms of a sprain?
Swelling, Pain, Redness and warmth.
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What is the treatment for a sprain?
R.I.C.E- Rest, Ice, Compression, Elevation.
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What do physiotherapists do?
Help patients re-train or reuse part of the body that isn't functioning properly.
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What are the parts of the blood?
Red blood cells, White blood cells, Platelets, Plasma.
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Why are red blood cells adapted to carrying oxygen?
They have no nucleus and have a biconcave shape which increases surface area for more efficient uptake of oxygen.
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What do white blood cells do?
Fight infections and defend the body against microorganisms.
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What are platelets used for?
They clot together at injury sites to prevent blood loss.
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What is plasma?
It's a liquid that transports nutrients, hormones, antibodies and waste.
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How many chambers does the heart have? and what are they called?
4 and the left+right ventricle, left+right atrium.
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Name the 4 pipes tubes that go into and out of the heart.
Vena cava goes into the heart, the Pulmonary vein goes to the lungs, the Pulmonary artery goes back to the heart and the Aorta takes it around the body.
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What do the valves in the heart do?
Prevent back flow.
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What type of walls do arteries have?
Thick and elastic to cope with the high blood pressure.
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What do veins do?
Carry blood to the heart.
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What are capillaries?
They connect arteries to veins, they have a narrow thin wall that is only one cell thick.
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If your body temperature is too high what happens?
Start sweating.
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What does it mean if you start shivering?
Your body temperature is too low.
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What is needed to control your body temperature?
Receptors in the skin, Receptors in the brain, the Brain, Effectors.
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What is the part of the brain that controls blood temperature?
The Hypothalamus.
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What happens to the blood vessels in the skin, in hot conditions?
They dilate.
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What is it called when more heat is lost from the surface of the skin by radiation?
Vasodilation.
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In what conditions do blood vessels constrict?
Cold.
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What does the pancreas do?
Releases a hormone called insulin which removes sugar from the blood.
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What happens if the hormone release goes wrong?
Diabetes is caused.
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How many types of diabetes are there?
2- Type 1 and Type 2.
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What type of sugars are found in processed foods and type of sugars in fruit?
Simple carbohydrates and Complex carbohydrates.
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What do simple carbohydrates do?
They releases sugars quickly into the bloodstream.
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What are the 3 waste products in an eco-system?
Oxygen, Carbon dioxide, Dead matter.
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Why are micro-organisms important in the recycling of waste?
They digest and break down many different materials, they have many digestive enzymes.
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Why are natural ecosystems are important to humans?
Food, clean air and oxygen, clean water.
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How can humans change an ecosystem?
Using fertilisers, Burning fossil fuels, Domestic and industrial waste, Removal of non-recycled waste, Timber harvesting, Fishing, Agriculture.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is bone made of?

Back

Rigid tissues.

Card 3

Front

What does muscle do?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What do ligaments do?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are tendons?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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