Biology F214 - Respiration

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  • Created by: Phil
  • Created on: 20-05-13 16:55
What is Respiration
The process whereby energy stored in complex organic molecules is used to make atp.
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What is energy?
The ability to do work.
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What are anabolic reactions?
Biochemical reactions where large molecules are synthesised from smaller ones.
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What are catabolic reactions?
Reactions where larger molecules are hydrlysed to produce smaller ones.
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What is ATP made up of?
Adenosine, Ribose sugar and 3 phosphate groups.
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How is ATP used to release energy and how much energy is released each time?
It is hydrolysed releasing it's phospahte group. The first two times this occurs 30.6 kJ per mol is released. For the last phosphate, 14.2KJ per mol is released.
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What are oxidation reactions?
Reactions that involve the loss of electrons and hydrogen atoms and the gain of oxygen.
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What are reduction reactions?
Reactions that involve the gain og electrons and hydrogen atoms and the loss of o2.
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Where does glycolysis take place?
In the cytoplasm.
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What are the products of hlycolysis?
For each molecule of glucose, glycolysis produces 2x atp, 2x reduced NAD, 2x Pyruvate (3C)
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What is the Link reaction, where does it take place?
Link reaction converts pyruvate into acetyl coA. It takes place in the mitochondrial matrix.
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What are the products of the Link reaction?
2x reduced NAD, 2x Co2 2x acetyl coA.
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Where does the Krebs Cycle take place?
In the mitochondrial Matrix.
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What are the products of the Krebs cycle for one mol of glucose.
6 reduced NAD, 2 reduced FAD, 4 Co2 and 2ATP.
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Why is the max yield of ATP rarely achieved?
1. Some atp is used to actively transport pyruvate across the mito membrane. 2. Some ATP is used to transport rNAD made in Glycolysis into the mitochondria. 3.Some H-ions leak across the mito membrane = less protons to generate the proton motive forc
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What 3 things does the mitochondrial matrix contain that allows it to carry out it's functions?
1.mito DNA - codes for proteins/enzymes used in links/krebs. 2. Coenzymes NAD - carried H. 3. contains Oxaloacetate - used in krebs.
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What is the main difference between the outer membrane and the inner membrane of the mitochondria?
Different lipid composition, inner layer is impermeable to most small ions.
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What other features do inner membranes have that makes them able to carry out there funtions?
1. Folded into cristae for large SA. 2. embodded with electron carriers and atp synthase enzymes. 3.hugh protein to phospholipid ratio.
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What other features do outer membrance have that makes them able to carry out their functions?
1. contains proteins channel/carriers allows passage of mols such as pyruvate.
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What do electron transport chains contain that makes them able to carry out their functions?
100s of oxidoreductase enzymes - involved in oxidation and reduction reactions.
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What is anaerobic respiration?
The release of energy from substrates such as glucose in the absence of o2.
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What process occurs in both anaerobic and aerobic resp?
Glycolysis.
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Why does anaerobic produce less atp than anarobic?
only glycolysis can occur due to no o2 and thereforce no o2 can be used in as the final acceptor.
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What must anaerobic respiration do with the pyruvate to ensure glycolysis continues to make atp?
The pyruvate must be reduced by the reduced nad, thus freeing up the NAD so it can be reused in the next glycolysis.
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How is the pyruvate reduced in mammals?
By a process called lactate fermentation?
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How is pyruvate reduced in yeast?
By a process called alcoholic fermentation.
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What happens during Lactate fermentation?
Pyruvate accepts h-ions from the rNAD. rNAD is reoxidised and can be reused. Enzyme lactate dehydrogenase catalises the oxidation of the rNAD and the reduction of the pyruvate to form LACTATE.
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What happens during alcoholic fermentation? (3)
1.Pyruvate is decarboxylated by pyruvate decarboxylase to produce Ethanal. 2. Ethanal is reduced by accepting h ions from rNAD (rNAD is then reoxidised and can be reused). 3. Ethanal is reduced to Ethanol (catalysed by ethanol dehydrogenase.)
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Define the term respiratory substrate.
An organic substance that can be used for respiration.
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What are the 3 main respiratory substrates?
Lipids, carbohydrates and proteins.
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Which respiratory substate has the most energy value and why?
Lipids. This is due to them having the highest number of h-stoms per mol, so more NAD molecules can be reduced and used in repiration.
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Which respiratory substrate has the lowest energy value and why?
Carbohydates as they have the lowest h-atoms per mole, so less NAD can be reduced.
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Which respiratory substrate has the second highest energy value?
Protein.
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Card 2

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What is energy?

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The ability to do work.

Card 3

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What are anabolic reactions?

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Card 4

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What are catabolic reactions?

Back

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Card 5

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What is ATP made up of?

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Comments

Vipul Aggarwal

On flashcard 4, you missed out the "O" in "hydrolysis" :)

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