Biology F212 Food&Health

The second unit of F212

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  • Created by: Melissa
  • Created on: 21-04-14 16:14
What is a balanced diet?
A diet that contains all the nutrients, in the correct proportions, that are required for health and growth.
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How can an unbalanced diet lead to malnutrition?
Malnutrition is caused by an unbalanced diet. A person can become malnourished and become obese. A person who is obese has consumed too much energy.
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How can a bad diet lead to CHD?
Excess salt in the diet can decrease the water potential of the blood, therefore the blood pressure increases. The high blood pressure can damage the inner lining of the arteries, this can lead to atherosclerosis.
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What are LDLs?
LDLs carry cholesterol from liver to cells. LDL's raise blood cholesterol.
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What are HDLs?
HDLs carry cholesterol from tissues to livers. HDLs lower blood cholesterol so less is deposited under the artery's endothelium.
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Why do humans depend on plants for food?
Humans eat both plants and herbivores, gaining our nutrition both directly and indirectly.
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How does selective breeding work for plants?
A pair of plants which display desired characteristics are allowed to reproduce. The offspring are selected to breed with those with the best combination of characteristics. The required characteristic becomes more exaggerated.
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How does selective breeding work for animals?
A pair of animals with the desired characteristics are allowed to reproduce. The offspring are allowed to reproduce. The required characteristic becomes more exaggerated after several generations.
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What are the disadvantages of selective breeding with animals?
It can cause interbreeding. It reduces the genetic variation. They may be more susceptible to diseases.
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How do fertilisers increase food production?
They replace minerals in the soil which have been removed by previous crops. They increase the rate of the growth.
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How do pesticides increase food production?
Pesticides kill organisms which cause disease. These diseases would reduce the yield of the crop or kill the crop.
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How do antibiotics increase food productions?
Infected animals can be treated with antibiotics. These reduce the spread of disease among animals. Diseases could reduce the growth performance of the animals and may impair reproduction.
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What are the advantages of micro-organisms to make food?
It can be many times faster than animal proteins. There are no animal welfare issues and it is a good source of protein for vegetarians. It contains no animal fat or cholesterol.
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What are the disadvantages of micro-organisms to make food?
Many people may not want to eat fungal protein that has been grown on waste. The protein has to be purified. Also, protein does not have the taste or texture as traditional protein sources.
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How does salting/adding sugar prevent food spoilage?
Salting kills bacteria because they lose water. The water leaves the bacteria by osmosis, because there is a lower water potential outside the cell.
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How does smoking prevent food spoilage?
Smoking makes the food develop a dry outer surface, the smoke also contains antibacterial chemicals.
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How does pickling prevent food spoilage?
Pickling includes an acid pH which kills micro-organisms by disrupting their DNA structure.
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How does canning prevent food spoilage?
The food is heated and sealed in airtight cans.
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How does cooling/freezing prevent food spoilage?
It slows down enzyme activity, as there is less kinetic energy.
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How does heat treatment prevent food spoilage?
Heat treatment denatures the tertiary structure and therefore the enzymes.
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What is meant by the term- health?
Health is a state of mental, physical and social well being.
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What is meant by the term-disease?
Disease is a departure from good health. A disease is a malfunction of the body or mind, which causes symptoms.
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What is meant by the term- parasite?
Parasites are organisms that live in or on another living thing. Parasites harm their host.
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What is meant by the term- pathogen?
Pathogens are organisms that cause disease.
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What causes malaria?
Plasmodium carried by a vector- female mosquito.
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Explain the life cycle of malaria? p1
A female mosquito sucks the blood of a human and the plasmodium migrate to the liver and multiply. Next, the the plasmodium enter the red blood cells where gametes are produced. Another mosquito sucks the blood with the host (infected with malaria).
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Explain the life cycle of malaria? p2
The gametes fuse together and the zygotes develop in the mosquito's stomach. The infective plasmodiums move towards salivary glands. When the mosquito bites a human, the plasmodium enter human.
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Explain HIV/AIDS and how it could kill you?
HIV is caused by human immunodeficiency virus. The virus enters the body and may remain inactive. Once the virus becomes active, it destroys T-Helper cells in the immune system. Therefore you can be killed by opportunistic infections.
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Explain HIV's life cycle?
HIV is a retrovirus. It inserts its RNA into a t lymphocyte. Reverse transcriptase produces a DNA copy of the viral RNA, The DNA copy is inserted into the chromosome, and then it is reproduced.
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How can HIV be caught?
It can be caught in various forms. Unprotected sexual intercourse, exchange of bodily fluids, needles, birth (placenta), breast feeding, and use of unsterilised equipment,
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What is TB caused by?
It is caused by a bacterium called mycobacterium. It is spread through tiny droplet of liquids such as coughs or sneezes. It takes close contact with an infected person to contract TB.
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What increases the likelihood of catching TB?
Overcrowding, meaning that you are in closer contact. Poor health- if a person already has HIV or AIDS they are more likely to catch TB.
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What is meant by the term- immune response?
Immune response is the specific response to a pathogen. It includes antibodies.
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What is meant by the term- antigen?
An antigen is a molecule that stimulates an immune response.
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What is meant by the term- antibody?
An antibody is a protein molecule which can neutralise antigens.
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What is the primary defence against pathogens?
The primary defence includes a mucus membrane to prevent entry to micro-organisms. Mucous membranes have goblet cells to produce mucus to trap pathogens. Blood clotting prevents pathogens entering bloodstream. Stomach acid kills bacteria in food.
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What is natural passive immunity?
Antibodies are provided via the placenta or breast milk. It is very useful to protect the baby from diseases. It is temporary.
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What types of people are 'risk groups' so need to be vaccinated?
Pregnant women, the elderly, people with chronic diseases, health workers, poultry workers.
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What is natural active immunity?
Immunity provided from antibodies after an infection. Memory cells remain.
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What is artificial active immunity?
Immunity provided by antibodies made in the immune system as a result of vaccination. A person is injected with weakened, dead pathogens. This activates the immune system to produce antibodies and therefore memory cells.
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What is herd vaccination?
Using a vaccine to provide immunity to all or almost all of the population at risk. Once enough people are immune, the disease can no longer spread.
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What is a ring vaccination?
It involves vaccinating all the people in the immediate vicinity of the new case. For example vaccinating the nearest town or city. It is used to control the spread of livestock disease.
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Why do we need new drugs?
We need new drugs as new diseases are emerging. Also there are some diseases without effective treatment, cancer? Some antibiotics are become ineffective due to natural selection
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Why do we need to maintain biodiversity?
There could be many species of drugs in the tropical rainforest that are yet to be discovered. We need to maintain biodiversity so they are not destroyed or become extinct.
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What happens to cause a smokers cough?
Tar destroys the ciliated epithelium. It also stimulates goblet cells to produce more mucus. Pathogens accumulate in the built up mucus. Mucus cannot be removed
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What happens because of a smokers cough?
Frequent coughing to remove the mucus damages the elastic fibres. There is formation of scar tissue. Smooth muscle gets thicker and there is reduced surface area for gas exchange.
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What happens during emphysema? p1
Tar destroys cilia. Mucus cannot be removed and more is produced by goblet cells.Pathogens get trapped which leads to infection. Phagocytes secrete elactase to digest elastic tissue to allow phagocytes to move in and out.
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What happens during emphysema? p2
The body has a natural level of elactase inhibitor which becomes reduced. Loss of elastic tissue means reduced elasticity of alveoli wall. Alveoli cannot recoil to push air out. The bronchioles collapse which increase pressure in the alveolus.
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What happens during emphysema? p3
The person coughs frequently which causes the alveoli to burst. This leads to a reduced surface area for gas exchange.
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What happens during lung cancer?
Tar contains carcinogens, they enter the nucleus of cells. This leads to mutations (random alterations to DNA). This leads to a tumour formation.
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What happens during atherosclerosis? p1
Carbon monoxide can damage the endothelium of arteries. High blood pressure (caused by carbon monoxide binding to haemoglobin) will increase the damage. The damage is repaired by phagocytes....
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What happens during atherosclerosis? p2
This encourages growth of smooth muscle+ the deposition of cholesterol. Atheromas are deposited under the endothelium. Atheroma forms a plaque which reduces blood flow. Stroke can occur because clots are more likely as nicotine makes platelets sticky
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How does nicotine affect a smoker?
Nicotine causes addiction, and makes the smoker feel more alert because of the adrenaline that is released. It makes platelets 'sticky' which means thrombosis may form. It also constrict arterioles.
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How does carbon monoxide affect a smoker?
Carbon monoxide combines with haemoglobin to create carboxyhaemoglobin because haemoglobin has a higher affinity for CO. This reduces the oxygen carrying capacity so the heart rate has to rise.
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How do carcinogens affect a smoker?
Carcinogens cause mutations in the bronchi cell lining. It can also lead to lung cancers and tumour formations.
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How does tar affect a smoker?
Tar stimulates the goblet cells to produce more mucus. It also damages the cilia lining. It can cause an allergic reaction.
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How can smoking cause CHD?
Coronary arteries pump blood at high pressure so are prone to atherosclerosis. If a lumen of a coronary artery becomes narrowed due to plaques, there is less blood flow to the heart muscle, and less oxygen for aerobic respiration.
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How can smoking cause a stroke?
A blood clot due to sticky platelets (nicotine) can cause a stroke if it blocks an artery leading to the brain.
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What factors increase the risk of CHD?
Age- the older you are, the risk increases. Obesity. High blood pressure. High blood cholesterol. High saturated fat intake. High salt intake. Genetic factors. Diabetes. Stress.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

How can an unbalanced diet lead to malnutrition?

Back

Malnutrition is caused by an unbalanced diet. A person can become malnourished and become obese. A person who is obese has consumed too much energy.

Card 3

Front

How can a bad diet lead to CHD?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are LDLs?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are HDLs?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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