biology DNA

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  • Created by: charlie
  • Created on: 02-12-13 20:36
4 nitrogenous bases
adenine, thymine, guanine, cytosine
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3 components of polynucleotide strand
deoxyribose (sugar), phosphate, nitrogenous base
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sense strand
side of DNA used to make proteins containing codons
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codons
triplet sequence of bases coding for amino acid
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nonsense strand
stabilise the DNA
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locus/loci
position of a gene
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alleles
different versions of the same gene arise by mutation
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introns
sections transcribed but removed from final polypeptide chain
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exons
exposed section of gene that codes for amino acid
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multiple repeats
non coding DNA consisting of same base sequence reoccurring
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karyotype
characterisation of chromosomes shown in homologous pairs ordered in descending size + relative positions to centromere
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function of DNA
hereditary material responsible for passing genetic info from cell to cell and generation to generation
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4 adaptions
very stable, separate easily, large molecules, protected from outside chemicals + forces
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features of triplet code
degenerative (most have >1) code, non overlapping, universal
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4 prokaryotic features
DNA smaller, forms circle, not associated with protein molecules, no chromosomes or membrane bound nucleus
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4 eukaryotic features
DNA larger, forms line with histones, in association with protein molecules, forms chromosomes
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mitosis stages
interphase , prophase , metaphase , anaphase , telophase , (cytokinesis)
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semi conservative replication used in ...+ produces...
used in growth + repair asexual reproduction producing genetically identical DNA
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meiosis stages
prophase 1 (first, pairing, last), metaphase 1, anaphase 1, telophase 1, interphase, prophase 2, metaphase 2, anaphase 2, telophase 2
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maternal homologues
original female parent at prophase 1 (first)
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paternal homologues
original male parent at prophase 1 (first)
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bivalent
points where chromosomes twist around each other at prophase 1 (pairing)
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chiasma
point where chromatids lie across each other at prophase 1 (last)
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centrioles
where microtubule spindles form made from protein tubulin
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causes of variation
(meiosis): cross over, independent assortment (another cause): random fertilisation
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cross over
genes swapped between homologous chromosomes
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independent assortment
arrangements possible with homologous chromosome pairs (2n^(n-1))
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random fertilisation
any female gamete can join with any male gamete
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DNA helicase
enzyme in semi conservative replication used to break hydrogen bonds
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DNA polymerase
enzyme in semi conservative replication attaching free nucleotides to exposed bases on template strand
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template strand
original strand made from sugar + phosphate backbone as strong
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semi conservative replication
two molecules have original polynucleotide strand + one new from supply of nucleotides
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G1 (first gap)
chromosomes occupied by protein synthesis + cell grows
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S
DNA synthesis (semi conservative replication)
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G2
after DNA synthesis + before chromo condense
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proto-oncogenes
stimulate cell division + inhibit cell death (affect cancer)
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tumour suppressor genes
prevent cell division + lead to cell death
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oncogenes
mutated proto-oncogenes which cannot be controlled by t.s.g
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benign
tumours enclose + growth at centre (not cancerous)
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malignant
growth at edges, invade surrounding areas, difficult to tell boundaries, metastasis
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metastasis
cells break off + move something else resulting in 2nd tumour
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genotype
genetic makeup + collection of alleles
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phenotype
observable features (genotype + enviro. = phenotype)
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discontinuous
one category or another controlled by single alleles
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continuous
range of values, polygenic, affected by envrio
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

deoxyribose (sugar), phosphate, nitrogenous base

Back

3 components of polynucleotide strand

Card 3

Front

side of DNA used to make proteins containing codons

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

triplet sequence of bases coding for amino acid

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

stabilise the DNA

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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