Biology definitions (F214)

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  • Created by: Lucyl57
  • Created on: 15-06-13 11:18
Stimulus
Any change in the environment that causes a response
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Response
A change in behaviour or physiology as a result of a change in the environment.
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Homeostasis
The maintenance of the internal environment in a steady state despite external changes
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Negative feedback
The reversal of a change in the internal environment to return to a steady state or optimum position
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Positive feedback
A process that increases any change detected by the receptors. It tends to be harmful and does not lead to homeostasis.
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Ectotherm
An organism that relies on external sources of heat to regulate its body temperature
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Endotherm
An organism that can use internal sources of heat, such as heat generated from metabolism in the liver, to maintain its body temperature.
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Hormones
Molecules that are released by endocrine glands directly into the blood.
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Endocrine gland
A gland that secretes hormones directly into the blood. Ductless
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Exocrine gland
A gland that secretes molecules into a duct that carries the molecules to where they are used.
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Target cells
Those that possess a specific receptor on their plasma membrane. The shape of the receptor is complementary to the shape of the hormone molecule. Many similar cells together form a tissue.
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Adenyl cyclase
An enzyme associated with the receptor for many hormones, including adrenaline. It is found on the inside of the plasma membrane.
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First messenger
The hormone that transmits a signal around the body.
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Second messenger
cAMP, which transmits a signal inside the cell.
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Cell metabolism
The result of all the chemical reactions taking place in the cytoplasm.
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Excretion
The removal of metabolic waste from the body
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Autotrophs
Organisms that use light energy or chemical energy and inorganic molecules (CO2 and water) to synthesise complex organic molecules
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Heterotrophs
Organisms that ingest and digest complex organic molecules, releasing the chemical potential energy stored in them.
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Photosynthetic pigments
Molecules that absorb light energy. Each pigment absorbs a range of wavelengths in the visible region and has its own distinct peak of absorption. Other wavelengths are reflected.
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Photophosphorylation
The making of ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate in the presence of light.
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Limiting factor
The factor that is present at the lowest or least favourable value.
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Photosynthometer
Used to measure the rate of photosynthesis by collecting and measuring the volume of oxygen produced in a certain time.
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Respiratory substrate
An organic substance that can be used for respiration
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Photosynthesis
The process whereby light energy from the sun is transformed into chemical energy and used to synthesise large organic molecules from inorganic substances
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Respiration
The process whereby energy stored in complex organic molecules (carbohydrates, fats and proteins) is used to make ATP.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

A change in behaviour or physiology as a result of a change in the environment.

Back

Response

Card 3

Front

The maintenance of the internal environment in a steady state despite external changes

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

The reversal of a change in the internal environment to return to a steady state or optimum position

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

A process that increases any change detected by the receptors. It tends to be harmful and does not lead to homeostasis.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

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