biology definitions

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  • Created by: charlie
  • Created on: 25-04-14 11:51
active transport
movement of molecules and ions across plasma membranes against concen. gradient requiring energy
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characteristic that increases organisms chance of survival
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alternative form of a gene
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chemical used to treat bacterial diseases
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protein produced by B-cells in response to presence of pathogen
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molecule found on the surface of a cell (foreign antigen triggers an immune response)
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fibrous plaque caused by build up + hardening of white blood cells, lipids + connective tissue
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act of arranging organisms into groups based on similarities and differences
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competitive inhibitor
molecule that has similar shape to a substrate + blocks enzymes active
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two bacteria come together + exchange genetic material
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control variable
variable you keep constant throughout an experiment
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courtship behaviour
behaviour carried out by organisms to attract a mate of the right species
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crossing over
chromatids twist around each other forming bivalents and parts of genetic information swap during meiosis
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dependent variable
variable measured in an experiment
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net movement of particles from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
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facilitated diffusion
diffusion of particles through carrier proteins or channel proteins in the plasma membrane
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founder effect
reduction in genetic diversity that occurs when just a few organisms from a population start a new colony
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section of DNA which codes for a protein
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genetic bottleneck
event that causes big reduction in a population and reduces genetic diversity
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golgi apparatus
fluid filled flattened sacs involved with processing and packaging lipids + proteins + making lysosomes
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herd immunity
unvaccinated people are protected because the occurrence of the disease is reduced by the number of people vaccinated
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horizontal gene transmission
genes passed horizontally to other members of the same or different species without reproduction occurring
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humoral immune response
immune response that involves B-cells and the production of antibodies
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the ability to respond quickly to an infection
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independent variable
variable you change in an experiment
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index of diversity
measure of species diversity that takes into account the number of species present + number of individuals of each species
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section of DNA within a gene that does not code for amino acid
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round organelle that contains digestive enzymes
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memory cell
white blood cell that remains in body + remember how to respond to infections
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metabolic rate
rate at which energy is used by organism
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oval shaped organelle and site of anaerobic respiration
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monoclonal antibody
antibody produced from single group of genetically identical B-cells
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multiple repeat
section of repeated DNA found outside genes doesn't code for amino acids
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change in base sequence of an organisms DNA
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natural selection
adaption becomes common in population because makes organism more likely to survive, reproduce and pass gene to offspring
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non-competitive inhibitor
molecule binds away from active site + alters shape of active site so substrate can no longer bind
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group of different tissues that work together to perform a particular function
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diffusion of water molecules across a partially permeable membrane from an area of less negative water potential to more negative water potential
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organism that causes disease
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characteristic displayed by organism
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alleles an organism has
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lipid containing one molecule of glycerol attached to two fatty acids + phosphate group
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study of evolutionary history of groups of organisms
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pulmonary ventilation
volume of air taken into the lungs in one minute
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heart rate
number of heart beats per minute
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purkyne fibres
fine muscle fibres in heart that carry waves of electrical activity into muscular walls of right + left ventricle
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small organelle that makes proteins
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risk factor
anything that increases chance of getting a disease
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selective breeding
humans select which domesticated animals or strains of plants reproduce for useful characteristics
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semi-conservaative replication
replication of DNA in which half of the new molecules of DNA are from the original parental DNA
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a group of similar organisms able to reproduce to give fertile offspring
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species diversity
number of different species and the abundance of each species within a community
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standard deviation
measure of spread of values about the mean
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stroke volume
volume of blood pumped during each heartbeat
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symplast pathway
osmosis (Water through cell wall, membrane + cytoplasm) --> cytoplasm of root cells connected by plasmodesmata (thin layers of cytoplasm) through holes in cell wall
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apoplast pathway
water carrying minerals travels through cellulose cell wall --> water diffuses through porous walls --> stops at endodermis (casparian strip) --> travels symplast pathway --> allows plant control over water uptake into xylem
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white blood cell involved in immune response some activate B-cells and some kill pathogens directly
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science of classification
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tidal volume
volume of air in each breath
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group of similar cells
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lipid containing one molecule of glycerol attached to 3 fatty acids
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cell components homogenised + separated out using centrifuge
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administering vaccine that contains inactive or weaker antigens to give immunity
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differences that exist in between individuals
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ventilation rate
number of breaths per minute
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vertical gene transmission
genes passed on during reproduction to subsequent generations
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water potential
likelihood of water molecules to diffuse out or into solution
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characteristic that increases organisms chance of survival



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alternative form of a gene


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chemical used to treat bacterial diseases


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protein produced by B-cells in response to presence of pathogen


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