biology definitions

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: charlie
  • Created on: 25-04-14 11:51
active transport
movement of molecules and ions across plasma membranes against concen. gradient requiring energy
1 of 67
characteristic that increases organisms chance of survival
2 of 67
alternative form of a gene
3 of 67
chemical used to treat bacterial diseases
4 of 67
protein produced by B-cells in response to presence of pathogen
5 of 67
molecule found on the surface of a cell (foreign antigen triggers an immune response)
6 of 67
fibrous plaque caused by build up + hardening of white blood cells, lipids + connective tissue
7 of 67
act of arranging organisms into groups based on similarities and differences
8 of 67
competitive inhibitor
molecule that has similar shape to a substrate + blocks enzymes active
9 of 67
two bacteria come together + exchange genetic material
10 of 67
control variable
variable you keep constant throughout an experiment
11 of 67
courtship behaviour
behaviour carried out by organisms to attract a mate of the right species
12 of 67
crossing over
chromatids twist around each other forming bivalents and parts of genetic information swap during meiosis
13 of 67
dependent variable
variable measured in an experiment
14 of 67
net movement of particles from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
15 of 67
facilitated diffusion
diffusion of particles through carrier proteins or channel proteins in the plasma membrane
16 of 67
founder effect
reduction in genetic diversity that occurs when just a few organisms from a population start a new colony
17 of 67
section of DNA which codes for a protein
18 of 67
genetic bottleneck
event that causes big reduction in a population and reduces genetic diversity
19 of 67
golgi apparatus
fluid filled flattened sacs involved with processing and packaging lipids + proteins + making lysosomes
20 of 67
herd immunity
unvaccinated people are protected because the occurrence of the disease is reduced by the number of people vaccinated
21 of 67
horizontal gene transmission
genes passed horizontally to other members of the same or different species without reproduction occurring
22 of 67
humoral immune response
immune response that involves B-cells and the production of antibodies
23 of 67
the ability to respond quickly to an infection
24 of 67
independent variable
variable you change in an experiment
25 of 67
index of diversity
measure of species diversity that takes into account the number of species present + number of individuals of each species
26 of 67
section of DNA within a gene that does not code for amino acid
27 of 67
round organelle that contains digestive enzymes
28 of 67
memory cell
white blood cell that remains in body + remember how to respond to infections
29 of 67
metabolic rate
rate at which energy is used by organism
30 of 67
oval shaped organelle and site of anaerobic respiration
31 of 67
monoclonal antibody
antibody produced from single group of genetically identical B-cells
32 of 67
multiple repeat
section of repeated DNA found outside genes doesn't code for amino acids
33 of 67
change in base sequence of an organisms DNA
34 of 67
natural selection
adaption becomes common in population because makes organism more likely to survive, reproduce and pass gene to offspring
35 of 67
non-competitive inhibitor
molecule binds away from active site + alters shape of active site so substrate can no longer bind
36 of 67
group of different tissues that work together to perform a particular function
37 of 67
diffusion of water molecules across a partially permeable membrane from an area of less negative water potential to more negative water potential
38 of 67
organism that causes disease
39 of 67
characteristic displayed by organism
40 of 67
alleles an organism has
41 of 67
lipid containing one molecule of glycerol attached to two fatty acids + phosphate group
42 of 67
study of evolutionary history of groups of organisms
43 of 67
pulmonary ventilation
volume of air taken into the lungs in one minute
44 of 67
heart rate
number of heart beats per minute
45 of 67
purkyne fibres
fine muscle fibres in heart that carry waves of electrical activity into muscular walls of right + left ventricle
46 of 67
small organelle that makes proteins
47 of 67
risk factor
anything that increases chance of getting a disease
48 of 67
selective breeding
humans select which domesticated animals or strains of plants reproduce for useful characteristics
49 of 67
semi-conservaative replication
replication of DNA in which half of the new molecules of DNA are from the original parental DNA
50 of 67
a group of similar organisms able to reproduce to give fertile offspring
51 of 67
species diversity
number of different species and the abundance of each species within a community
52 of 67
standard deviation
measure of spread of values about the mean
53 of 67
stroke volume
volume of blood pumped during each heartbeat
54 of 67
symplast pathway
osmosis (Water through cell wall, membrane + cytoplasm) --> cytoplasm of root cells connected by plasmodesmata (thin layers of cytoplasm) through holes in cell wall
55 of 67
apoplast pathway
water carrying minerals travels through cellulose cell wall --> water diffuses through porous walls --> stops at endodermis (casparian *****) --> travels symplast pathway --> allows plant control over water uptake into xylem
56 of 67
white blood cell involved in immune response some activate B-cells and some kill pathogens directly
57 of 67
science of classification
58 of 67
tidal volume
volume of air in each breath
59 of 67
group of similar cells
60 of 67
lipid containing one molecule of glycerol attached to 3 fatty acids
61 of 67
cell components homogenised + separated out using centrifuge
62 of 67
administering vaccine that contains inactive or weaker antigens to give immunity
63 of 67
differences that exist in between individuals
64 of 67
ventilation rate
number of breaths per minute
65 of 67
vertical gene transmission
genes passed on during reproduction to subsequent generations
66 of 67
water potential
likelihood of water molecules to diffuse out or into solution
67 of 67

Other cards in this set

Card 2


characteristic that increases organisms chance of survival



Card 3


alternative form of a gene


Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4


chemical used to treat bacterial diseases


Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5


protein produced by B-cells in response to presence of pathogen


Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards


No comments have yet been made

Similar Biology resources:

See all Biology resources »See all Biological molecules resources »