Biology Core

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  • Created by: T Colby
  • Created on: 26-05-15 17:10
Good health means having the energy you need but not ...
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What are the key food groups in a person's diet?
Carbohydrate, protein, fats, fibre, vitamins and mineral ions
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Name one mineral ion
Salt (Sodium Na+)
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Is calcium a mineral?
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Carbohydrates release what?
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Fats keep you ... and release ...
Warm and energy
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What three things does protein do?
Cell repair, cell replacement and growth
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What is the speed at which chemical reactions take place in your body called?
Metabolic rate
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True or false. Different people have different metabolic rates and energy requirements.
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True or false. Smaller people are likely to have a higher metabolic rate.
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True or false. Fitter people are likely to have a higher metabolic rate.
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Why do bigger people likely have a higher metabolic rate?
They have more cells that need more energy.
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Why does exercise increase a persons metabolic rate?
Exercise builds muscle and increases metabolic rate and makes it stay high for some time after exercise.
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Fibre keeps your ..., ..., ... and everything else generally running smoothly.
Skin, blood and bones
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Name a mineral ion found in milk
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What three factors affect a person's health?
Having an unbalanced diet, not getting enough exercise and inherited factors
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True or false. Malnourished people can be fat only
False. They can be fat or thin
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State two health disorders related to people being malnourished.
Obesity and anorexia
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Define obesity
Obesity is defined as being 20% or more over the maximum recommended body weight.
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In what type of countries is obesity a common health disorder?
Developed countries
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Name four health issues caused by obesity.
Arthritis, type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure and heart disease.
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Undereating can cause what four things?
Fatigue, slow growth, poor resistance to infection and irregular periods in women.
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What are dificiency diseases caused by?
A lack of vitamins and minerals.
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Name a dificiency disease and what it is caused by.
Scurvy, a lack of vitamin C
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Exercise increases the amount of what used by the body and decreases the amount stored as what?
Energy and fat
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True or false. People can be fit but not healthy.
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Describe an inherited factor that links to the thyroid gland.
Inherited factors can cause an underactive thyroid gland which lowers your metabolic rate and causes obesity
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What is calories measured in?
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What is kilojoules measured in?
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How can you check slimming foods are effective?
Is it a scientific piece (scientifically proven), was it a large sample size, and was it writtten by a qualified person and have similar studies found similar results.
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What health problem does eating too much sodium cause?
High blood pressure
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What are the two types of pathogen?
Bacteria and virus
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How do bacteriums make you feel ill?
Damaging your cells and producing toxins (poisons)
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True or false. Viruses are living cells.
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What is the purpose of platelets?
To clot blood to seal wounds and prevent pathogens entering the body.
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What are three defence systems used by the body before the immune system kicks in?
Skin, respiratory system and platelets.
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What does your respiratory system do to stop pathogens entering the body?
Hairs and mucus.
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What two things do antibodies produce to kill bacteriums?
Antibodies and antitoxins
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What is the purpose of antitoxins?
Counteract toxins produced by bacteriums
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What is the purpose of antibodies?
Have a unique shape that can connect to specific antigens on the surface of bacteriums to kill them.
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What are antibodies made of?
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What does MMR stand for?
Mumps, measles and rubella
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What is measles also commonly known as?
German measles
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What other thing do white blood cells do to kill invading cells?
Engulf and digest them.
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Name an infectious disease that no longer exists due to vaccination.
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True or false. Polio infections have fallen by 99% due to vaccinations.
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How do viruses reproduce?
They use your own cells' machinery and when a cell is full of new viruses it bursts releasing them into your body.
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Give two negatives of vaccinations.
Doesn't always work (not 100% effective) and sometimes people get bad reactions to vaccinations.
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What is a vaccination.
A dead or inactive pathogen being injected into your blood stream to promote white blood cells producing antibodies and developing immunity.
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What are the three types of drug?
Recreational, medicinal and performance-enhancing.
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How can bacteriums become resistant to antibiotics
They can mutate and become resistant Strains
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What are unmutated bacteriums known as?
Non-resistant strains
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What is the purpose of antibiotics?
Kill or inhibit the growth of bacteria
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Why can't antibiotics kill viruses
They're designed to kill or inhibit the growth of bacteria. Also viruses use your own cells to reproduce.
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What powerful antibiotic is MRSA resistant to?
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What does agar jelly contain?
Carbohydrates, proteins, minerals and vitamins
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How are inoculating loops sterlised?
Passed over a hot flame
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How can viruses mutate?
Changing their DNA and antigens
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What is the difference between epidemics and pandemics
Epidemics spread rapidly within a single population, pandemics spread rapidly all across the world.
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State a stimulus
A bear that could kill you
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What is a stimulus?
A change in your environment
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What does CNS stand for and what does it contain?
Central nervous system and it contains the brain and spina cord.
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What does the brain control?
Body temperature
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Name the five sense organs.
Eyes, nose, ears, skin and tongue
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What type of receptors do the eyes and nose contain?
Light and taste
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What are nerve cells also known as?
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What is the connection between two neurones called?
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The passage of information in a reflex is called what?
Reflex arc
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What does the reflex arc go through?
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Why are reflexes quicker than normal responses?
You don't have to think about them
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What are hormones carried in?
The blood plasma
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What are hormones?
Chemical messengers sent in the blood that affect target cells
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What hormones does the pituitary gland produce and secrete?
FSH and LH
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What produces and secretes oestrogen in women?
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Descibe three characteristics of hormones.
Act for a long time, slow action and act in a more general way.
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What is the first stage of the menstrual cycle?
When bleeding starts and the uterus lining breaks down for about 4 days.
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What is the second stage of the menstrual cycle?
Uterus lining build up again from day 4 to day 14 into a thick spongy layer of blood vessels, ready to recieve a fertilised egg.
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What is the third stage of the menstrual cycle?
An egg is released from an ovary at day 14.
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What is the fourth stage of the menstrual cycle?
The wall is maintained for about 14 days, until day 28 and if no fertilised egg has landed on the uterus wall the spongy layer breaks down and the cycle starts again.
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Name another hormone produced by the ovaries in the menstrual cycle.
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True or false. Hormones can be used to reduce fertility only.
False. It can be used for increasing and reducing fertility
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Name two types of contraceptive pill.
The pill and the progesterone pill
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What are some positives of the pill?
It is 99% effective at reducing fertility and it can reduce the risk of getting some types of cancer.
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What are some negatives of the pill?
It isn't 100% effective, it can carry some side effects such as headahces, nausea and fluid retention and it doesn't pretect against STDs.
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State another way of increasing fertility.
IVF treatment
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What is the process of IVF treatment?
Collecting eggs from the woman's ovaries and fertilising them in the lab using the man's sperm to grow embryos. These are then transferred to the woman's uterus when they're tiny balls of cells and increases fertility chances.
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What two hormones are involved in IVF treatment?
FSH and LH
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Name a plant growth hormone.
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What does auxin help shoots to do?
Grow towards light and away from gravity.
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What does auxin help roots to do?
Grow towards gravity and moisture.
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True or false. Plant hormones such as auxin can't be used in agriculture.
False. They can to increase plant production.
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What are the four body levels that need to be kept correct and constant?
Temperature, ion content, sugar content and water content.
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What regulates ion content?
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How are ions taken into the body?
Food and drink
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What absorbs ion?
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How are excess ions removed from the body?
Sweat and urine
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What three ways is excess water removed from the body?
Skin as sweat, lungs as breath and kidneys as urine.
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When are you likely to sweat less and produce more diluted urine?
When it is a cold day or when you're not exercising.
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When are you likely to sweat more and produce more concentrated urine and lose more water from breath?
Hot day or when you're exercising.
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Why does body temperature need to be controlled by the brain?
Because all enzymes work best at about 37 degrees Celsius.
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How does your brain work out body temperature?
Messages from the skin about skin temperature and sensitive to blood temperature in the brain.
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What hormone helps to maintain the right levels of glucose in your blood so that your cells get a constant supply of energy?
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Drugs change your body ...
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Some drugs make your body addicted. If you stop taking the drug, your body will suffer what?
Withdrwal symptoms.
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Name four drugs that are very addictive
Caffeine, cocaine, heroin and nicotine
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True or false. Recreational drugs can be legal and illegal.
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Name two types of legal recreational drugs.
Tobacco and alcohol.
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Name two types of performance-enhancing drugs.
Anabolic steroids and stimulants
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Give a negative health effect of anabolic steroids.
High blood pressure.
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What are statins?
Drugs used to lower the risk of heart and circulatory disease.
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True or false. Some legal recreational drugs have a bigger impact than illegal recreational drugs.
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Desert animals have adapted to do what?
Save water and keep cool.
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Arctic animals have adapted to do what?
Reduce heat loss
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Desert plants have adapted to do what?
Save water
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How have some plants and animals adapted to deter predators?
Developed spikes, shells and bright warning colours.
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What are microorganisms that live in extrem environments known as?
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Name two animals that have adapted to deter predators and how.
Tortois and shell, frogs and bright warning skin
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Name two plants that have adapted to deter predators and how.
Cactus and rose bush and spikes
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What four things do plants need to survive and reproduce?
Water, minerals, light and space
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What four things do animals need to survive?
Space (territory), water, food and mates
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Name two organisms that compete with each other for resources to survive and reproduce.
Red and grey squirrels
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What are environmental changes caused by?
Living and non-living factors
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Give some non-living factors that cause environmental changes.
Change in average temperature, change in average rainfall and change in the level of air to water pollution.
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Give some living factors that cause environmental changes.
Change in the occurrence of infectious diseases, change in the number of predators, change in the number of prey or the availability of food and resources and change in the number of types of competitors.
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How do environmental changes affact organisms?
Increases population size, decreases population size or changes the distribution of organisms.
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What is a living species indicator?
A species that indicates environmental changes due to human activities.
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Give a living indicator species.
Lichen shows whether there is air pollution or not due to human activites as the population of it decreases as air pollution increases.
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What are lichen sensitive to?
Concentration of sulphur dioxide in the atmosphere.
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What non living indicator is measured using satellites?
Sea surface temperature and snow and ice cover.
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What is a stage in a pyramid of biomass also known as?
Trophic level
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Every time you move up a trophic level there is usually less what?
Energy and biomass
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Pyramids of biomass show what?
Food chains
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What is the big bottom bar in a pyramid of biomass?
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What is the bar above the producer?
Primary consumer
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What is the bar above the primary consumer?
Secondary consumer
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What provides nearly all the energy on Earth?
The Sun (our local star)
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What two things make food during photosynthesis?
Plants and algae
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What supplies energy for what?
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Name two types of animal that have to have their body temperature higher than their surroundings.
Birds and mammals
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Name an inedible material found in either plants or animals that doesn't pass to the next stage of the food chain.
Bone in animals
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Name a waste material that decays.
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How are elements cucled back to the food chain?
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What three factors increase the rate at which microorganisms decay waste products?
Warm temperatures, moist and plenty of oxygen.
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What is a stabel community in a food chain?
Materials that are taken out of the soil are balanced with what goes back in.
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Give some occasions when carbon is returned back to the atmosphere.
Plants and algae respiring, animals respiring, microorganisms and detritus feeders respiring and combustion (burning) of useful plant and animal materials.
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Give a plant or animal material that is burned.
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What is variation?
The changes in a species appearance.
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What two factors can cause variation?
Genetic and environmental variation
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What is genetic variation caused by?
Inherited characteristics
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What causes inherited characteristics?
Inherited genes
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How are genes passed on?
Sex cells (gametes)
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Name the two types of sex cell.
Egg and sperm cells
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How many genes do gametes contain each and when combined?
23 alone and 46 combined resulting in 23 pairs
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What contains the genetic material in a cell?
Nucleus which contains chromosomes which contain genes.
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What are alleles?
Different versions of the same gene.
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Give an example of an alleles.
Brown and blue eyes are caused by different alleles of the same gene.
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Sexual reproduction produces genetically what cells?
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What is it called when an egg and sperm cell fuse?
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Why do plants and animals use asexual reproduction?
To grow and produce replacement cells.
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Give the two ways that plants can be cloned.
Cuttings and tissue culture
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How can you make animal clones?
Using embryo transplants.
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What are some issues surrounding cloning?
Reduced gene pool (disease coud wipe out a population), young animals could develop elderly diseases and children could be born disabled.
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What do GM (genetically modified) crops reduce?
Farmland biodiversity
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What could GM crops provide to people in developing countries?
Correct and enough nutrients
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True or false. All organisms aren't related
False, they are. Evolution makes them different
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What does it mean if species are closely related?
They share a close common ancestor
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Give an example of closely related organisms.
Apes and humans
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Species become genetically different due to what?
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Who devised the theory of natural selection for evolution?
Charles Darwin
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What do evolutionary trees show?
Common ancestors and relationships between organisms.
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Individuals within a population of a species show variation due to what?
Differences in their genes
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What can also make evolution occur?
Mutations in DNA
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Mutations can produce a useful what?
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A beneficial mutation is more likely to what?
Pass on down the generations as it allows successful survival and reproduction
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Give two people that opposed Charles Darwin and his theory of natural selection?
Jean-Baptiste Lamarck and the Church
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What caused Darwin's theory to be widely accepted?
The discovery of genetics.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What are the key food groups in a person's diet?


Carbohydrate, protein, fats, fibre, vitamins and mineral ions

Card 3


Name one mineral ion


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


Is calcium a mineral?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Carbohydrates release what?


Preview of the front of card 5
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