BIOLOGY CELLS

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What parts do plant cells have that animal cells don't have?
cell wall, permanent vacuole, chloroplasts
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What is the cell wall? What are chloroplasts? What is the permanent vacuole?
-Made of cellulose and strengthens the cell. -Chloroplasts absorb light energy for photosynthesis. -Permanent vacuole contains cell sap
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How many cells do yeast cells have?
one
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Where is DNA found in bacteria cells and why?
The DNA floats in cytoplasm because bacteria cells dont have a nucleus
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What is Diffusion?
Diffusion is the spread out of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration
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Diffusion happens in solutions and gases. TRUE / FALSE
TRUE
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What does the cell membrane do? What do Mitochondria and Ribosomes do?
-holds the cell together and controls what goes in and out. - where most energy from respiration is released. - where proteins are made in the cell
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What does the nucleus and cytoplasm do?
-Conatins DNA that controls activities of cell. -Gel-like substance where most of the chemical reactions happen
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What happens in the cell membrane with diffusion? and why?
Only very small molecules can fit through cell membranes e.g. oxygen, glucose, amino acids. Big molecules like starch, proteins cant fit through membrane. molecules move from area of high to low concentration.
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What are specialised cells?
Cells that carry out a specific function
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Specialised cells form tissues. What do tissues form? and what forms after?
tissues form organs which form organ systems
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What is a tissue?
A group of similar cells which work together to carry out a particular function
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What does muscular tissue do?
-contracts to move whatever its attatched to
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What does Glandular tissue do?
-makes substances like hormones and enzymes
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What does Epithelial tissue do?
-Covers some parts of the body, e.g. inside of the gut
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What is an organ?
An organ is a group of different tissues that work together to perform a certain function
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In the stomach, what does the muscular tissue do?
moves stomach wall to mix up food
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In the stomach, what does the glandular tissue do?
makes digestive juices to digest food
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Int he stomach, what does the epithelial tissue do?
covers outside and inside of stomach
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What is an organ system?
A group of organs working together to perform particular function
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What does the digestive system do?
breaks down food by realeasing digestive enzymes. Then digestive system absorbs products of digestion
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Describe the digestive system
-Salivary glands, produce saliva digestive juice, goes down oesaphogaus then down to the stomach which digests the food. Food goes down to pancreas and produces digestive juices.
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What does the large intestine do?
absorbs water from undigested food leaving POO
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What does the small intestine do?
Digets food and absorbs soluble food e.g. glucose
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What is the function of the Epidermasl tissue, Mesophyll tissue and the Xylem and Phloem?
-Covers the whole plant. -Where most photosynthesis happens. -Xylem and phloem vessels transport substances around the plant
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What is photosynthesis?
The process that makes glucose in plants and algae
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Where does photosynthesis happen?
inside the chloroplasts
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What is the green substance chloplasts contain?
Chlorophyll
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What is the Equation for photosynthesis?
Carbon dioxide + water = (sunlight and chlorophyll on arrow) glucose + oxygen
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What does the rate of photosynthesis depend on?
-Amount of light. - Amount of CO2. -Temperature
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Name 3 ways in which plants use glucose
-For respiration, plants make glucose in leaves. - Making cell walls; glucose is made into cellulose which makes cell walls strong, -Making proteins - Stored in seeds -Stored as starch
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What is the distribution of an organism?
Where an organism is found
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What environmental factors affect where an organism is found?
-temperature. - amount of water. -amount of light. -amount of CO2 and O2. -amount of food and nutrients around
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WHta two methods can be used to study the distribution of organisms?
quadrats and transects
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Describe the method of using Quadrats
Place a 1m2 quadrat on the ground at random point within first sample area. - count organisms within quadrat - repeat as many times as possible
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Describe the method of using Transects
-Mark out line in the area you want using a tape measure, - collect data along line by counting all organisms that touch line using quadrats placed along line
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In the light intensity graph, how is it shown when light is no longer the limiting factor?
the line goes flat. it shows photosynthesis wont go any faster
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What are advantages of greenhouses with these factors?
-Greenhouses are made of glass so they let lots of light through, - artificial light can be supplied at night. -Farmers can add more CO2 by paraffin heater. -Greenhouses are warm, traps sun heat. In winter, farmers can use heaters
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What are the disadvantages of using greenhouses?
-Giving plants more light, CO2 and heat costs money
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How do you make results more reliable using quadrats and transects?
-Take a large sample size so use as many quadrats as possible, -Use random samples so randomly put out quadrat.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is the cell wall? What are chloroplasts? What is the permanent vacuole?

Back

-Made of cellulose and strengthens the cell. -Chloroplasts absorb light energy for photosynthesis. -Permanent vacuole contains cell sap

Card 3

Front

How many cells do yeast cells have?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Where is DNA found in bacteria cells and why?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is Diffusion?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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