Biology - Cells

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  • Created by: Katie_
  • Created on: 17-02-14 15:34
What is the function of the nucleus?
Contains genetic material (DNA), which controls the activities of the cell
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What is the function of the cytoplasm?
Most chemical processes take place here, controlled by enzymes
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What is the function of the cell membrane?
Controls the movement of substances into and out of the cell
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What is the function of the mitochondria
Most energy is released by respiration here
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What is the function of the ribosomes?
Make proteins using amino acids
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What is the function of the cell wall?
Strengthens the cell
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What is the function of the chloroplasts?
Contain chlorophyll, which absorbs light energy for photosynthesis
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What is the function of the permanent vacuole?
Filled with cell sap to help keep the cell turgid
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Bacterial Cells
-A bacterium is a single-celled organism -A bacterial cell has a different structure to an animal or plant cell. It has cytoplasm, a membrane and a surrounding cell wall, but the genetic material in a bacterial cell is not in a distinct nucleus
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Yeast
-Yeast is a single-celled organism -Like bacterial cells, yeast cells have cytoplasm and a membrane surrounded by a cell wall. But unlike bacterial cells, yeast cells have a nucleus.
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Leaf Cell
-Absorbs light energy for photosynthesis -Packed with chloroplasts -Regular shaped, closely packed cells form a continuous layer for efficient absorption of sunlight
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Root hair cell
-Absorbs water and mineral ions from the soil -Long 'finger-like' process with very thin wall, which gives a large surface area.
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Sperm cell
-Fertilises an egg cell -The head contains genetic information and an enzyme to help penetrate the egg cell membrane -The middle section is packed with mitochondria for energy -The tail moves the sperm to the egg.
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Red blood cell
-Contains haemoglobin to carry oxygen to the cells -Thin outer membrane to let oxygen diffuse through easily -Shape increases the surface area to allow more oxygen to be absorbed efficiently -No nucleus, so the whole cell is full of haemoglobin.
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Diffusion
-Occurs when particles spread -Particles diffuse down a concentration gradient, from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.
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Example 1 of diffusion
-Gut, digested food products move from gut cavity to blood in capillary of villus
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Example 2 of diffusion
-Lungs, oxygen moves from alveolar air space to blood circulating around the lungs
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Explain how oxygen passes from the blood to mitochondria
By diffusion from a high to low concentration through cell membrane or through cytoplasm.
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Describe how the ribosomes and mitochondria help the cell to make enzymes
Ribosomes make proteins / enzymes using amino acids and mitochondria provide the energy for the process.
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Definition of a tissue
A tissue is a group of specialised cells that have a similar structure and function.
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Muscular tissue function
Contracts, bringing about movement
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Glandular tissue function
Produces substances such as enzymes and hormones
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Epithelial tissue function
Covers some parts of the body
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Muscular tissue in the stomach function
To churn the food and other contents of the stomach
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Glandular tissue in the stomach function
To produce digestive juices including acid and enzymes
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Epithelial tissue in the stomach function
To cover the inner and outer surfaces of the stomach
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The digestive system, pancreas and salivary glands function
Produce digestive juices
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The digestive system, stomach function
Produces food
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The digestive system, liver function
Produces bile
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The digestive system, small intestine function
Digest and absorb soluble food
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The digestive system, large intestine function
Absorbs water from undigested food, producing faeces
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Tissues in plants, epidermal tissue function
Covers the plant
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Tissues in plants, mesophyll function
Carries out photosynthesis
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Tissues in plants, xylem and phloem function
Transport of substances around the plant
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Examples of plant organs
-Roots -Stems -Leaves
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Chlorophyll
To absorb sunlight
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Large surface area
To absorb more light
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Stomata
To let carbon dioxide diffuse into the leaf
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Thin
Short distance for carbon dioxide to diffuse into leaf cells
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Network of veins
To support the leaf and transport water and carbohydrates
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Purpose of: thin, waxy cuticle made of wax
To protect the leaf without blocking out light
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Purpose of: thin, transparent epidermis
To allow more light to reach the palisade cells
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Purpose of: layer of palisade cells on the top surface
To absorb light
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Purpose of: many chloroplasts in the palisade cells
To increase absorption of light
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Purpose of: spongy mesophyll inside the leaf
Air spaces allow carbon dioxide to diffuse through the leaf, and increase the surface area
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What happens during photosynthesis?
-Light energy is absorbed by chlorophyll, a green substance found in chloroplasts in some plant cells and algae -Absorbed light energy is used to convert carbon dioxide (from the air) and water into glucose -Oxygen is released as a by product
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Factors that affect the rate of photosynthesis
-Light intensity -Carbon dioxide concentration -Temperature
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Light intensity
-Without enough light, a plant cannot photosynthesise very quickly, even if there is plenty of water and carbon dioxide. Increasing the light intensity will boost the speed of photosynthesis.
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Carbon dioxide concentration
Sometimes photosynthesis is limited by the concentration of carbon dioxide in the air. Even if there is plenty of light, a plant cannot photosynthesise if there is insufficient carbon dioxide.
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Temperature
If it gets too cold, the rate of photosynthesis will decrease. Plants cannot photosynthesise if it gets too hot.
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How farmers can increase their crop yield
The use of artificial light – allows photosynthesis to continue beyond daylight hours. Bright lights also provide a higher-than-normal light intensity.
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How farmers can increase their crop yield (continued)
The use of artificial heating – allows photosynthesis to continue at an increased rate. The use of additional carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere inside the greenhouse – allows photosynthesis to continue at an increased rate.
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Some glucose is used for respiration to release energy. Some is used to produce:
Cellulose - which strengthens the cell wall and Proteins - such as enzymes and chlorophyll
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Card 2

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What is the function of the cytoplasm?

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Most chemical processes take place here, controlled by enzymes

Card 3

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What is the function of the cell membrane?

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Card 4

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What is the function of the mitochondria

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Card 5

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What is the function of the ribosomes?

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