Biology- cell division, differentiation, and organisation

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Mitosis
Asexual cell division where two identical cells are formed.
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Meiosis
The 2- stage process of cell division which reduces the chromosome number of the daughter cells. It forms 4 gametes.
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Chromosome
A thread of DNA made up of strings of genes.
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Allele
An alternative form of the same gene.
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Haploid nucleus
A nucleus containing a single set of unpaired chromosomes (sperm and egg)
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Diploid nucleus
A nucleus containing 2 sets of chromosomes ( a body cell)
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Differentition
A cell that is specialized for a particular function.
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Stem cells
An undifferentiated cell that can turn into any type cell.
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Problems with stem cell research (embryonic)
Ethical issues (human rights, killing a child), progress is slow/ expensive, could cause cancer.
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Benign tumours
A tumor only affecting one area, but can still be life threatening.
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Malignant tumors (cancer)
Tumors that spread (travels through the bloodstream)
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Causes of cancer
Carcinogens, ionising radiation, virus infections.
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Tissue
A group of cells with similar structure and function working together.
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Organ
A group of tissues working together to carry out a specific function.
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Organ system
A group of organs working together to carry out a specific function.
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Plant organs
Leaf, stem, root, flower.
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Organisation
Cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism.
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What does digestion do?
It breaks down food's molecules so the body can absorb the now soluble food molecuels.
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Digestion glands
Pancreas, salivary gland (in stomach producing digestive enzymes), liver producing bile.
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Xylem
Transports water (plants)
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Phloem
Transports sucrose (plants)
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Stem
Provides support in plants.
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Root
Anchors plants and obtains water and minerals.
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Palisade mesophyll
Upper layer of mesophyll in plant leaves that contains many chloroplasts for photosynthesis.
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Spongy mesophyll
Lower layer of mesophyll tissue in leaves that contains some chloroplasts and air spaces to give a large surface area for diffusion of gasses.
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Stoma
Openings in leaves of plants which allow gasses to enter/ exit leaf. They are opened/closed by guard cells.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Meiosis

Back

The 2- stage process of cell division which reduces the chromosome number of the daughter cells. It forms 4 gametes.

Card 3

Front

Chromosome

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Allele

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Haploid nucleus

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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