Biology Biotechnology Definitions

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1. There are many possibilities of theraputic cloning, eg 1) regenerating heart muscle following a heart attack

  • 2) repair of nervous tissue from diseases such as multiple sclerosis 3) repair of the spinal chord
  • 2) often produce proteins or chemicals that are released into the surrounding medium and can be harvested 3) can be genetically engineered to produce specific chemicals 4) not dependant on climate 5) purer products than those from chemical synthesis
  • Genes, cells or whole organisms that carry identical genetic material because they are derived from the same original DNA
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2. Outlined steps of micropropogation: tissue culture

  • 1) explant taken 2) sterilised 3) placed on nutrient growth medium 4) cells divide but do not differentiate forming callus 5) single callus cells placed on shoot growth hormones 6) then placed on root growing hormones 7) acclimatised (greenhouse)
  • 1) Taking cuttings - a section of the stem is cut between leaf joints, treated with hormones and then planted 2) grafting - a shoot section is joined to an already growing root and stem, the graft is identical to the parent but not the rootstock
  • Refers to the separation of cells of any tissue type and their growth in or on a nutrient medium containing plant hormones that stimulate development of the complete plant

3. Biotechnology is

  • Technology based on biology and involves the exploitation of living organisms or biological processes, to improve agriculture, animal husbandry, food science, medicine and industry
  • 2) often produce proteins or chemicals that are released into the surrounding medium and can be harvested 3) can be genetically engineered to produce specific chemicals 4) not dependant on climate 5) purer products than those from chemical synthesis
  • Ethical objections, and some people think there is a lack of understanding on how these clones will behave over time
  • 1) enzymes not present with products so downstream processing cost low 2) enzymes are immediately available for reuse 3) immobilised enzymes are more stable as the matrix protects them

4. In the production of food eg cheese and yoghurt making the bacteria

  • Ethical objections, and some people think there is a lack of understanding on how these clones will behave over time
  • 1) enzymes not present with products so downstream processing cost low 2) enzymes are immediately available for reuse 3) immobilised enzymes are more stable as the matrix protects them
  • Lactobacillus grow in milk to change the flavour and the texture - in doing so they prevent the growth of other bacteria which would spoil the food
  • 2) as in plants, mass genetic uniformity makes the species unable to adapt to changes in environment 3) animals may not remain healthy in the long term

5. The advantages of immobilising enzymes are

  • 1) enzymes not present with products so downstream processing cost low 2) enzymes are immediately available for reuse 3) immobilised enzymes are more stable as the matrix protects them
  • A growth of microorganisms, this may be a single species (pure culture) or a mixed species (mixed culture), microorganisms can be cultured in a liquid such as nutrient broth or a solid surface such as nutrient agar gel

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