Biology Biotechnology Definitions

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1. Natural vegetative propogation is

  • Refers to the production of structures in an organism that can grow into new individual organisms. These offspring contain the same genetic information as the parent and so are clones of the parent
  • 2) as in plants, mass genetic uniformity makes the species unable to adapt to changes in environment 3) animals may not remain healthy in the long term
  • Ethical objections, and some people think there is a lack of understanding on how these clones will behave over time
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2. The two main methods of artificial vegetative propogation are

  • Large scale cloning
  • 1) Taking cuttings - a section of the stem is cut between leaf joints, treated with hormones and then planted 2) grafting - a shoot section is joined to an already growing root and stem, the graft is identical to the parent but not the rootstock
  • Ethical objections, and some people think there is a lack of understanding on how these clones will behave over time

3. For the production of drugs eg penicillin the fungus

  • Penicillum are grown in culture and produces the antibiotic as a by-product of its metabolism
  • 2) as in plants, mass genetic uniformity makes the species unable to adapt to changes in environment 3) animals may not remain healthy in the long term
  • Ethical objections, and some people think there is a lack of understanding on how these clones will behave over time
  • 1) enzymes not present with products so downstream processing cost low 2) enzymes are immediately available for reuse 3) immobilised enzymes are more stable as the matrix protects them

4. Continuous culture is where

  • Nutrients are added and products removed at regular intervals - useful for primary metabolites
  • A growth of microorganisms, this may be a single species (pure culture) or a mixed species (mixed culture), microorganisms can be cultured in a liquid such as nutrient broth or a solid surface such as nutrient agar gel
  • 1) enzymes not present with products so downstream processing cost low 2) enzymes are immediately available for reuse 3) immobilised enzymes are more stable as the matrix protects them

5. Immobilisation of enzymes refers to any technique where

  • 1) enzymes not present with products so downstream processing cost low 2) enzymes are immediately available for reuse 3) immobilised enzymes are more stable as the matrix protects them
  • Enzyme molecules are held, seperated from the reaction mixture, substrate molecules can bind to the enzyme molecules and the products formed go back into the reaction mixture leaving the enzyme molecules in place
  • A growth of microorganisms, this may be a single species (pure culture) or a mixed species (mixed culture), microorganisms can be cultured in a liquid such as nutrient broth or a solid surface such as nutrient agar gel

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