Biology Biotechnology Definitions

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1. Microorganisms are used in biotechnical industry because 1) they grow rapidly in favourable conditions with a fast generation time some as little as 30 minutes

  • 2) often produce proteins or chemicals that are released into the surrounding medium and can be harvested 3) can be genetically engineered to produce specific chemicals 4) not dependant on climate 5) purer products than those from chemical synthesis
  • 2) as in plants, mass genetic uniformity makes the species unable to adapt to changes in environment 3) animals may not remain healthy in the long term
  • Ethical objections, and some people think there is a lack of understanding on how these clones will behave over time
  • 1) enzymes not present with products so downstream processing cost low 2) enzymes are immediately available for reuse 3) immobilised enzymes are more stable as the matrix protects them
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2. Theraputic cloning is not currently allowed to be used as people have

  • 1) enzymes not present with products so downstream processing cost low 2) enzymes are immediately available for reuse 3) immobilised enzymes are more stable as the matrix protects them
  • Ethical objections, and some people think there is a lack of understanding on how these clones will behave over time
  • 2) as in plants, mass genetic uniformity makes the species unable to adapt to changes in environment 3) animals may not remain healthy in the long term

3. There are many possibilities of theraputic cloning, eg 1) regenerating heart muscle following a heart attack

  • 2) repair of nervous tissue from diseases such as multiple sclerosis 3) repair of the spinal chord
  • 2) often produce proteins or chemicals that are released into the surrounding medium and can be harvested 3) can be genetically engineered to produce specific chemicals 4) not dependant on climate 5) purer products than those from chemical synthesis
  • Genes, cells or whole organisms that carry identical genetic material because they are derived from the same original DNA

4. A cloned animal is

  • Refers to the separation of cells of any tissue type and their growth in or on a nutrient medium containing plant hormones that stimulate development of the complete plant
  • One that has been produced using the same genetic information as another animal, such an animal has the same genotype as the donor organism
  • Genes, cells or whole organisms that carry identical genetic material because they are derived from the same original DNA

5. Non reproductive (the book means theraputic) is

  • Genes, cells or whole organisms that carry identical genetic material because they are derived from the same original DNA
  • The use of cloned cells to generate cells, tissues and organs to replace those damaged by disease or accidents
  • 2) as in plants, mass genetic uniformity makes the species unable to adapt to changes in environment 3) animals may not remain healthy in the long term

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