Biology Biotechnology Definitions

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1. Asepsis is

  • 1) enzymes not present with products so downstream processing cost low 2) enzymes are immediately available for reuse 3) immobilised enzymes are more stable as the matrix protects them
  • The absence of unwanted microorganisms
  • 1) immobilisation requires additional time, equipment and materials 2) immobilised enzymes may be less active as they are held separate 3) any contamination is costly as the whole system would need to be stopped
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2. Continuous culture is where

  • Nutrients are added and products removed at regular intervals - useful for primary metabolites
  • A growth of microorganisms, this may be a single species (pure culture) or a mixed species (mixed culture), microorganisms can be cultured in a liquid such as nutrient broth or a solid surface such as nutrient agar gel
  • 1) enzymes not present with products so downstream processing cost low 2) enzymes are immediately available for reuse 3) immobilised enzymes are more stable as the matrix protects them

3. Clones are

  • Ethical objections, and some people think there is a lack of understanding on how these clones will behave over time
  • Genes, cells or whole organisms that carry identical genetic material because they are derived from the same original DNA
  • 2) often produce proteins or chemicals that are released into the surrounding medium and can be harvested 3) can be genetically engineered to produce specific chemicals 4) not dependant on climate 5) purer products than those from chemical synthesis

4. Tissue culture can also be used in artificial propogation for

  • 1) Taking cuttings - a section of the stem is cut between leaf joints, treated with hormones and then planted 2) grafting - a shoot section is joined to an already growing root and stem, the graft is identical to the parent but not the rootstock
  • Large scale cloning
  • Ethical objections, and some people think there is a lack of understanding on how these clones will behave over time

5. The disadvantages of cloning animals are 1) high value animals are not produced with animal welfare in mind eg chickens with no legs

  • 2) as in plants, mass genetic uniformity makes the species unable to adapt to changes in environment 3) animals may not remain healthy in the long term
  • 2) often produce proteins or chemicals that are released into the surrounding medium and can be harvested 3) can be genetically engineered to produce specific chemicals 4) not dependant on climate 5) purer products than those from chemical synthesis
  • Genes, cells or whole organisms that carry identical genetic material because they are derived from the same original DNA

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