Biology Biotechnology Definitions

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1. Microorganisms are used in biotechnical industry because 1) they grow rapidly in favourable conditions with a fast generation time some as little as 30 minutes

  • 1) enzymes not present with products so downstream processing cost low 2) enzymes are immediately available for reuse 3) immobilised enzymes are more stable as the matrix protects them
  • 2) as in plants, mass genetic uniformity makes the species unable to adapt to changes in environment 3) animals may not remain healthy in the long term
  • 2) often produce proteins or chemicals that are released into the surrounding medium and can be harvested 3) can be genetically engineered to produce specific chemicals 4) not dependant on climate 5) purer products than those from chemical synthesis
  • Ethical objections, and some people think there is a lack of understanding on how these clones will behave over time
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2. A culture is

  • A growth of microorganisms, this may be a single species (pure culture) or a mixed species (mixed culture), microorganisms can be cultured in a liquid such as nutrient broth or a solid surface such as nutrient agar gel
  • 1) immobilisation requires additional time, equipment and materials 2) immobilised enzymes may be less active as they are held separate 3) any contamination is costly as the whole system would need to be stopped
  • 1) enzymes not present with products so downstream processing cost low 2) enzymes are immediately available for reuse 3) immobilised enzymes are more stable as the matrix protects them

3. In normal sexual reproduction, which parents mitochondrial DNA is found in offspring

  • Only the mothers
  • 2) as in plants, mass genetic uniformity makes the species unable to adapt to changes in environment 3) animals may not remain healthy in the long term
  • Ethical objections, and some people think there is a lack of understanding on how these clones will behave over time
  • 1) enzymes not present with products so downstream processing cost low 2) enzymes are immediately available for reuse 3) immobilised enzymes are more stable as the matrix protects them

4. The standard growth curve for a culture of microorganisms is labelled

  • 1) enzymes not present with products so downstream processing cost low 2) enzymes are immediately available for reuse 3) immobilised enzymes are more stable as the matrix protects them
  • Lag, Log, Stationary, Death
  • A growth of microorganisms, this may be a single species (pure culture) or a mixed species (mixed culture), microorganisms can be cultured in a liquid such as nutrient broth or a solid surface such as nutrient agar gel
  • 1) immobilisation requires additional time, equipment and materials 2) immobilised enzymes may be less active as they are held separate 3) any contamination is costly as the whole system would need to be stopped

5. Secondary metabolites are

  • 1) enzymes not present with products so downstream processing cost low 2) enzymes are immediately available for reuse 3) immobilised enzymes are more stable as the matrix protects them
  • Substances produced by an organism that are not part of its normal growth, the antibiotic chemicals produced by a number of microorganisms are almost all secondary metabolites
  • A growth of microorganisms, this may be a single species (pure culture) or a mixed species (mixed culture), microorganisms can be cultured in a liquid such as nutrient broth or a solid surface such as nutrient agar gel

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