Biology Biotechnology Definitions

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1. Continuous culture is where

  • 1) enzymes not present with products so downstream processing cost low 2) enzymes are immediately available for reuse 3) immobilised enzymes are more stable as the matrix protects them
  • Nutrients are added and products removed at regular intervals - useful for primary metabolites
  • A growth of microorganisms, this may be a single species (pure culture) or a mixed species (mixed culture), microorganisms can be cultured in a liquid such as nutrient broth or a solid surface such as nutrient agar gel
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2. During natural vegetative propogation in English elm, following destruction or damage to the parent plant, new growth in the form of

  • Basal sprouts appears within 2 months from the meristem tissue in the trunk close to the ground, where least damage is likely to have occured
  • 2) often produce proteins or chemicals that are released into the surrounding medium and can be harvested 3) can be genetically engineered to produce specific chemicals 4) not dependant on climate 5) purer products than those from chemical synthesis
  • Ethical objections, and some people think there is a lack of understanding on how these clones will behave over time

3. The standard growth curve for a culture of microorganisms is labelled

  • 1) enzymes not present with products so downstream processing cost low 2) enzymes are immediately available for reuse 3) immobilised enzymes are more stable as the matrix protects them
  • 1) immobilisation requires additional time, equipment and materials 2) immobilised enzymes may be less active as they are held separate 3) any contamination is costly as the whole system would need to be stopped
  • Lag, Log, Stationary, Death
  • A growth of microorganisms, this may be a single species (pure culture) or a mixed species (mixed culture), microorganisms can be cultured in a liquid such as nutrient broth or a solid surface such as nutrient agar gel

4. Tissue culture can also be used in artificial propogation for

  • 1) Taking cuttings - a section of the stem is cut between leaf joints, treated with hormones and then planted 2) grafting - a shoot section is joined to an already growing root and stem, the graft is identical to the parent but not the rootstock
  • Large scale cloning
  • Ethical objections, and some people think there is a lack of understanding on how these clones will behave over time

5. There are two main methods of artificially cloning animals

  • 1) splitting embryos (artificial identical twins) 2) Nuclear transfer (using enucleated eggs like Dolly the sheep)
  • 2) often produce proteins or chemicals that are released into the surrounding medium and can be harvested 3) can be genetically engineered to produce specific chemicals 4) not dependant on climate 5) purer products than those from chemical synthesis
  • Genes, cells or whole organisms that carry identical genetic material because they are derived from the same original DNA

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