Biology Biotechnology Definitions

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1. Batch culture is where

  • 1) enzymes not present with products so downstream processing cost low 2) enzymes are immediately available for reuse 3) immobilised enzymes are more stable as the matrix protects them
  • A fixed quantity of nutrient is added and products are removed at the end of the period, useful for secondary metabolite production
  • 1) immobilisation requires additional time, equipment and materials 2) immobilised enzymes may be less active as they are held separate 3) any contamination is costly as the whole system would need to be stopped
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2. The growing conditions in an industrial fermenter can be manipulated by adjusting

  • Temperature, type and time of nutrient, oxygen concentration, pH
  • A growth of microorganisms, this may be a single species (pure culture) or a mixed species (mixed culture), microorganisms can be cultured in a liquid such as nutrient broth or a solid surface such as nutrient agar gel
  • 1) enzymes not present with products so downstream processing cost low 2) enzymes are immediately available for reuse 3) immobilised enzymes are more stable as the matrix protects them

3. The advantages of asexual reproduction are

  • Genes, cells or whole organisms that carry identical genetic material because they are derived from the same original DNA
  • 1) it's quick, allowing organisms to take advantage of resources in the environment 2) can be completed if sexual reproduction fails 3) all offspring have the genetic information to survive in their environment
  • 2) as in plants, mass genetic uniformity makes the species unable to adapt to changes in environment 3) animals may not remain healthy in the long term

4. During natural vegetative propogation in English elm, following destruction or damage to the parent plant, new growth in the form of

  • Ethical objections, and some people think there is a lack of understanding on how these clones will behave over time
  • Basal sprouts appears within 2 months from the meristem tissue in the trunk close to the ground, where least damage is likely to have occured
  • 2) often produce proteins or chemicals that are released into the surrounding medium and can be harvested 3) can be genetically engineered to produce specific chemicals 4) not dependant on climate 5) purer products than those from chemical synthesis

5. Continuous culture is where

  • Nutrients are added and products removed at regular intervals - useful for primary metabolites
  • A growth of microorganisms, this may be a single species (pure culture) or a mixed species (mixed culture), microorganisms can be cultured in a liquid such as nutrient broth or a solid surface such as nutrient agar gel
  • 1) enzymes not present with products so downstream processing cost low 2) enzymes are immediately available for reuse 3) immobilised enzymes are more stable as the matrix protects them

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