Biology B6 OCR Gateway Revision

  • Created by: charlotte
  • Created on: 09-06-13 15:13
How do bacteria reproduce
• Bacteria reproduce asexually – BINARY FISSION • The cell splits in two. • The chromosomes are copied • The cell grows • The cells then divides into two cells
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Products made using bacteria
1. Cheese 2. Yoghurt 3. Beer 4. Wine 5. Olives/Pickles
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parts of a bacterial cell
flagellum: for movement, cell wall: to maintain shape and to stop it from bursting, bacterial DNA: to control the cell’s activities and replication of the cell
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ways that disease is transmitted
food & water, contact, airbourne droplets
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antibiotics can be used for
stop bacteria growing
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stages of an infectious disease
1. microorganism (pathogen) enters the body. 2. reproduces rapidly. 3. produces toxins which damage cells & tissue. 4. cause symptoms of infection
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how does yeast reproduce?
asexually bu budding
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factors that affect yeast growth are
temperature, amount of glucose, pH & build up of toxic waste (the alcohol needs to be removed)
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the equation for yeast fermentation (anaerobic respiration) is
C2H12O6 → 2C2H5OH + 2CO2 + energy
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the equation for respiration is
6h20 + 602 → C6H1206 + 602 + energy
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what do biofuels contain and why
70% methan + 30% carbon dioxide. more methane = more flammable + costs less
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advantages to biofuels
sustainable, returns the same amount of CO2 into the atmosphere that it used, less dangerous to your health
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uses of biofuels
electricity, produce how water & steam for central heating, fuel for buses
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disadvantages of biofuels
• Less land to grow food if used to grow Biofuels • Decreases biodiversity • Countries cutting down rainforests so increased pollution.
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what is the importance of earthworms in souls
• Earthworms bury organic matter for decomposition by fungi and bacteria • They aerate and drain the soil with their burrows • They mix the layers in the soil up by burrowing • They help neutralise the acid soil
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advantages of living in water
less variation in temp, never a lack of water, provides body support & easier waste disposal
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disadvantages of living in water
use more energy to move & have to control water content in the body
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eutrophication is
where sewage and fertiliser run off from fields and enter waterways which causes rapid algae growth, blocking sunlight and killing water plants
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what enzymes are found in biological eashing powder
amylases, proteases & lipases
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what is an immobilised enzyme
something like a sheet of metal or plastic and even surrounding the enzyme is a permeable jelly called alginate beads.
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advantages of immobilised enzymes
don't contaminate the product & can be used in continuous flow processsing
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sucrase breaks down sucrose into what two components
glucose & fractose
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method of genetic engineering
1. identify gene. 2. remove the gene. 3. restriction enzyme cuts open DNA which the gene will enter. 4. insert the gene into the DNA of the 2nd organism
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advantages of genetic engineering
makes chemicals without harming animals/humans, faster than selective breeding, produces crops which need less fertiliser, make their own pesticides and produce a greater yield
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disasvantages of genetic engineering
environmental damage & pest resistance may spread to wild plants
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Products made using bacteria


1. Cheese 2. Yoghurt 3. Beer 4. Wine 5. Olives/Pickles

Card 3


parts of a bacterial cell


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Card 4


ways that disease is transmitted


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Card 5


antibiotics can be used for


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