Biology B5 OCR Gateway 2013

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  • Created by: Elisabeth
  • Created on: 02-06-13 20:54
Why are bones hollow?
It makes them lighter then more efficient and stronger than one of the same mass. They are filled with bone marrow
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What is the job of the skeleton? (3 different)
Support, allow it to move and to protect vital organs
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What 2 things are deposited in cartilage ?
Phosphorus and calcium
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What is it called when cartilage turns into bone?
Ossification
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What are the 2 different types of joints?
Ball and socket, hinge
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What are bones attached to bone with?
Ligaments
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Why is there cartilage at the end of bones?
To stop the bones rubbing together and acts as a shock absorber
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What lubricates the joints?
The synovial membrane and the synovial fluid
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Why do single celled organisms not need a circulatory system?
They don't need to transport materials theu can just diffuse in and out of the cell
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What animal has a single circulatory system?
Fish, it has 2 chambers in its heart.
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What is the name of the two electic pulses in the heart
Sino-atria node (SAN) and the Atrio-ventricular node (AVN)
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What do Echocardiograms show?
An enlarged heart, a decreased pumping ability and valve function.
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What do Electrocardiograms show?
Heart attacks and irregular heart beats
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What are the 3 main ways your heart can go wrong?
Valve function, conorary heart disease and a hole in the heart
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What are the 3 drugs you can take you can take to prevent the blood from clotting?
Heparin, warfarin and aspirin
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Who can blood group A give to?
A and AB
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Who can blood group AB give to
Only AB
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Who can blood group O give to?
Anyone, this is the universal donator
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What 3 mechanical replacements can be used for organs?
Lung-heart machines, Kidney dialysis and Mechanical ventilators
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What is lung capacity measured wwith?
A spirometer
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How are the lungs adapted for gaseous exchange?
They contain millions of little air sacs called alveoli which create a large surface area, they have a moist surface to help oxygen and carbon dioxide to dissolve, they have a thin lining so the gases don't have to diffuse far and a good blood supply
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How does the body protect its lungs?
It is lined with mucus and cillia which catch dust and microbes before they meet the lungs,the cillia then beat the microe-filled mucus out as phlegm
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What can cause lung disease?
Industrial materials (eg asbestos), Genetic causes (cystic fibrosis), Lifestyle (smoking) and Asthma
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Why does your body digest food?
So it is small enough to be aborbed into your blood plasma or lymph
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What enzyme breaks down carbohydrates?
Carbohydrase
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What enzyme breaks down fats?
Lipase (this is because fats are also called lipids)
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What does proteases break down?
Proteins
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Is bile acidic,neutral or alkali
Alkali, because the enzymes diesting the fat work best in neutral pH so the alkali neutralizes the stomach acid.
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Where is bile made?
Liver but is stored in the gall bladder
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How is the small intestine adapted for food absorbtion?
It is very long and has a long time to break down the food, it also has a large surface area as it has villi and microvilli and the villi have a single permeable layer of cells near a blood supply.
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What are three main roles of the kidneys?
To remove urea (from excess amino acids), To adjust salt levels and To adjust water content of the blood.
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What hormone controls water levels in the body?
Anti-diuretic hormone (ADH)
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What machine do you use if your kidneys don't work?
Dialysis machine
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How does a Diaysis machine work?
It has a barrier which is permeable to ions and waste substances but not big molecules like protiens. Therefore they are removed from the blood just like a kidney
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What 3 factors can have an affect on your growth?
Genes, Diet (calcium and protien) and excercise (builds muscle and stimulates a growth hormone)
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is the job of the skeleton? (3 different)

Back

Support, allow it to move and to protect vital organs

Card 3

Front

What 2 things are deposited in cartilage ?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is it called when cartilage turns into bone?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are the 2 different types of joints?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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