Biology b4

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  • Created by: Emily
  • Created on: 07-06-13 13:35
what is an ecosystem?
physical environment with a particular set of conditions plus all the organisms that live in it
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name all the sampling methods..
pooters- containers sweepnets- collect in long grass, pitfall traps- containers set into ground quadrats- square frames that have sides 0.5m long, smaller representative of population
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when sampling what must you make sure of?
take a big enough sample for a good estimate of results and sample randomly- the more random the more representitive it is going to be
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what is a transect line?
it is used to map the distrubution of organisms- used for studies of how species change across a boundary between habitats
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how is the transect line laid out?
a line is laid out and quadrats are then distributed in regular intervals on the line and species in quadrats are counted
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kite diagrams show zonation, what is this?
it is the gradual change in the distribution of species across a habitat
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how is the data from a transect usually presented?
by using a kite diagram
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what is glucose stored as in plants?
starch
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what can the glucose produced in photosynthesis be used for?
respiration, or can be converted into substances
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what can glucose and starch be converted into?
energy (during respiration), proteins for growth and repair, starch fats or oils which can be stored in seeds and cellulose- needed for cell walls
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is glucose soluble or insoluble?
it is soluble but can be transported around the plant as solube sugar, nut must be converted into starch which is insoluble in order to be stored
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how can the rate of photosynthesis be increased?
the temperature, light intensity, co2 concentration
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does starch affect the water concentation?
no it doesn't
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describe the structure of a leaf..
waxy cuticle, upper epidermis layer, palisade layer, spongy mesophyll, vascular bundles, lower epidermis, stomata and guard cell
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describe the upper epidermis, palisade layer and the spongy mesophyll
UE- transparent to allow sunlight through to the layer below PL- near the top of the leaf packed with chloroplasts- absorb max amount of light SM- lots of air spaces connected to stomata to allow optimum exchange of gases
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what is chlorophyll?
a pigment, it absorbs light
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what do the stomata do?
on the underside of a leaf and they allow the exchange of gases- opened and closed by guard cells
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what is the structure like, like the surface area etc
it has a thin structure so the gases have a short way to travel and it has a large surface area to vol ratio
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what causes the rate of reaction to increase?
a greater s/a outside the membrane, greater difference between concentrations and the particles have a shorter distance to travel
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what is diffusion?
the movement a substance from a high concentration to a low concentration
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what is osmosis?
diffusion of water from a high concentration of water (dilute) to a low (concentrated) through a partially permeable membrane
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what happens when cells are in a weak and concentrated solution?
weak- absorb water, swell up and may burst concentrated- lose water and shrivel up
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which plant cells dont have any chloroplasts?
root cells
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what is turgor pressure and why is it important?
keeps the plant up right and stops it from wilting
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what happens to the pressure inside the cell as water moves in?
it increases
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what are the advantages of an inelastic wall, which only plants have?
prevents cells from bursting due to excess water and contributes to rigity
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describe the structure of xylem.. (vascular bundles)
xylem- transports water and soluble mineral salts from roots to leaves (transpiration) and are made from dead plant cells, have a hollow lumen
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describe the structure of phloem.. (vascular bundles)
allows movement of food (sugars) around plant in stems for growing tissues and storage tissues
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what can the rate of transpiration be affected by?
light, air movement, temp and humidity
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what is transpiration?
the diffusion and evaporation of water from inside a leaf
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how can a leafy shoots rate of transpiration be measured?
mass potometer
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how is the leaf adapted to reduce water loss?
a waxy cuticle on the surface of the leaf and having most of the stomata on the lower surface of a leaf and the turgidity of guard cells
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what is NPK?
nitrates, potassium and phosphates
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what are they used for?
N- to make proteins (to make amino acids) for cell growth K- respiration and photosynthesis P- respiration and cell growth (make dna and cell membranes)
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what is magnesium used for?
to make chlorophyll for photosynthesis
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what happens if there is a lack of phosphates, nitrates, potassium and magnesium
N- poor growth/yellow leaves Potassium- poor flower/fruit growth/discoloured leaves, Phosphates- poor root growth and discoloured leaves and M yellow leaves
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what is decay?
the process of breaking down complex substances into simpler ones by microorganisms
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how is the rate of decay affected?
changing temp above 40c enzymes denature, amount of oxygen increases rate of respiration, grow quicker and water- too much/little will affect growth
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what do detrivors (worms/maggots) feed on?
dead organisms and decaying material
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what are microorganisms used to breakdown?
compost heaps and sewage
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how can food be preserved?
by removing the oxygen, warmth or moisture
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name a few methods of decay..
canning, kept at low temps, pickled in vinegar, preserved in sugar/salt or dried
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why does care need to be taken when using pesticide?
harm other organisms, build up in food chains harming animals at the top and some stay in the food chain for years
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name the 4 intensive farming conditions..
battery farming, glasshouses, hydroponics and fish farming
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what are some organic farming methods?
using natural fertilisers, rotating crops to maintain soil fertility, weeding and varying seed planting times to discourage pests
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what is hydroponics?
plants arent grown in soil- their roots are in a solution containing the minerals for growth, it is useful for greenhouses or areas with thin soil
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what are the advantages and disadvantages of hydroponics?
A- mineral levels can be controlled and a reduced risk of plants becoming diseased D- have to be supported and fertilisers are expensive
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what is biological control?
when farmers decide to introduce a predator instead of using a pesticide to reduce the number of pests
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what are the advantages and disadvantages of biological control?
A- predator selected only attacks the pest and pest can't become resistant D- pest isn't completely removed and the predator may reproduce out of control
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

name all the sampling methods..

Back

pooters- containers sweepnets- collect in long grass, pitfall traps- containers set into ground quadrats- square frames that have sides 0.5m long, smaller representative of population

Card 3

Front

when sampling what must you make sure of?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

what is a transect line?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

how is the transect line laid out?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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