Biology B2/ Protein synthesis

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What does a Gene do?
A gene codes for a specific protein
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How do cells make proteins?
By stringing together amino acids in a particular order
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how many different amino acids are used to make thousands of different proteins?
20
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What does the order of bases in a gene tell us?
the order to put the amino acids in
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What is a triplet?
A set of 3 bases that code for a particular amino acid
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What are proteins made by?
in the cell by organelles called Ribosomes
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How does the cell get information from the DNA to the ribosome in the cytoplasm?
A molecule called mRNA is used as a messenger between the DNA and the ribosome
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What is mRNA?
mRNA= a molecule similar to DNA. It is much shorter and only has a single strand. Instead of the base thymine it has uracil
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What is the first step of Protein synthesis?
The DNA molecule is ‘unzipped’ where the gene to be ‘read’ is located. Hydrogen bonds are broken
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Second step of Protein synthesis?
an enzyme reads the exposed bases on just one of the DNA strands, one by one.Base pairing ensures it's complementary(an exact match)
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Third step of protein synthesis?
newly formed mRNA molecule moves out of the nucleus. mRNA molecule attaches to a ribosome in the cytoplasm.
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What is step 1-3 called?
TRANSCRIPTION: takes place in the nucleus of the cell and results in the formation of a molecule of messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA).
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Fourth step of Protein synthesis?
The bases on the mRNA molecule are read in sets of three. Amino acids that match the mRNA code are brought to the ribosome by molecules called tRNA
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what is tRNA?
A molecule of transfer ribonucleic acid. One end of the tRNA molecule has a code that is complementary to the first codon on the mRNA. The other end of the tRNA molecule carries an amino acid that is represented by the code on the tRNA molecule.
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Fifth step of protein synthesis?
The code on the tRNA molecule is paired with the code on the mRNA molecule and the first amino acid in the new protein is in place. • A second amino acid is added to the first when the code on another tRNA molecule binds with the second codon on th
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Last/sixth step of protein synthesis?
1.) The amino acids are linked together, one by one in order they were brought to ribosome by tRNA 2.)final protein formed has a particular shape determined by order of amino acids in protein 3.)The shape of the protein determines the function of t
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What is step 4-6 called?
TRANSLATION: place in the cytoplasm of the cell and results in the formation of a protein
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What is a triplet code or codon?
a set of three bases
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What is a mutation?
A change to an organism's DNA base sequence. Could affect sequence of amino acids in the protein and therefore the protein's shape and function
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Harmful example of a mutation?
genetic disorder e.g. cystic fibrosis
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beneficial example of a mutation?
new characteristic e.g. resistance
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Neutral example of mutation?
does not affect the protein's function
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Card 2

Front

How do cells make proteins?

Back

By stringing together amino acids in a particular order

Card 3

Front

how many different amino acids are used to make thousands of different proteins?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What does the order of bases in a gene tell us?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is a triplet?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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