BIOLOGY B3

What is the definition of a species?
A species is a group of organisms that can breed together to produce fertile offspring
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Why is it important for a species to adapt to their environment?
Makes individuals more likely to survive / go on to produce offspring / Make it more likely that whole species will continue to exist
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What is the name given to describe differences in a species?
Variation within a species
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What causes genetic variation?
When genes change in offspring
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What are these changes called?
Mutations
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What can cause a mutation?
Outside factors e.g. radiation or chemicals / mistakes when genes are copied during cell division
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What effect do mutations have on body cells?
Generally no effect but can lead to cancer
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What effect do mutations have on sex cells?
More effect because mutation will be passed on to all cells
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Can new characteristics help an organism?
They can help to survive or they may be harmful
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What does Natural Selection mean?
Survival of the Fittest
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What process does Natural Selection cause?
Evolution
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How does natural selection help a species?
Characteristics that are selected will be passed on and help a species adapt well to its environment
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What is selective breeding?
Where humans choose what gets selected / features are chosen
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What is the problem with selective breeding?
may promote features that don't help survival
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How does evolution produce new species?
Different mutations and different new features / Natural Selection works on the new features so they are passed on / Environmental changes
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What evidence is there for evolution?
Fossil records (shows organism getting more complex) and DNA (two species that are similar but have a number of different mutations)
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Who proposed the idea of Evolution by natural selection?
Charles Darwin
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How did he come up with this theory?
He made many observations and applied creative thought
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What does biodiversity include?
Number of different species on Earth / Range of types of organisms (plants animals microorganisms) / genetic variation between organisms of same species
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Why is biodiversity important?
The more plants, the more available resources / New medicines
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What is happening to the rate of extinction?
It is increasing
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What is causing the rate to increase and how?
Correlation between humans and rate of extinction / Human activities e.g. Destroying habitats or pollution
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What is Classification all about?
Organising organisms into groups
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How do scientists group organisms together?
Based on similarities in characteristics / Genetics / physical features
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Name the five different groups.
Bacteria / Fungi / algae / plants / animals
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What happens as you go down each of these groups?
Number of types of organisms decreases but characteristics in common increases
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Why is classification important?
Shows us the evolutionary relationships between different organisms
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What does the environment ,in which an organism lives, need to provide?
Light (plants to make food) / Food (For animals, minerals for plants) / Oxygen (for animals and plants) C02 for plants / water (for everything)
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What happens if there is a short supply of any of these?
Organisms have to compete for it
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What will happen to some organisms?
Some won't survive / limit sizes of populations
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What else can the changes effect?
Food chains in a habitat
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What can cause extinction?
Rapid changes in an envrionment
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How is energy transferred in ecosystems?
When animals eat plants and other animals
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Equation to work out how much energy is lost.
Energy available from previous stage - Energy available to next stage = energy lost
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Equation to work out efficiency.
Efficiency = (enerygy available to the next stage/Energy that was available to previous stage) x 100
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Draw the carbon cycle
One arrow down / 4 arrows up
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Draw the nitrogen cycle
3 arrows down / 1 arrow up
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What non-living indicators can measure environmental change?
temperature / nitrate level / Carbon dioxide level
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What living indicators can measure environmental change?
Lichen / Mayfly Nymphs / Phytoplankton
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What does sustainability mean?
Meeting the need of today's population without harming the environment so that future generations can still meet their own needs
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What is an important part of sustainability?
Maintaining biodiversity
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How can packaging materials be made more sustainable?
use renewable materials (paper and card) / use less energy (recycle) / Creating less pollution (biodegradable materials)
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Why is it important for a species to adapt to their environment?

Back

Makes individuals more likely to survive / go on to produce offspring / Make it more likely that whole species will continue to exist

Card 3

Front

What is the name given to describe differences in a species?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What causes genetic variation?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are these changes called?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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