Biology B1: You and Your Genes

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What does the nucleus contain?
Genetic material
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What is this genetic material arranged into?
Chromosomes
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How many pairs of chromosomes does a human cell contain?
23 (23 in the sperm and 23 in the egg)
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What gives the chromosomes there shape?
They are one very long molecule of DNA that's coiled up
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What is a gene?
A short length of chromosome
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What are alleles?
Different versions of the same genes
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What do genes control?
The development of different characteristics
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What does each gene have a code for?
Making a certain protein
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What are proteins?
The building blocks of cells
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What does having different versions of proteins mean?
We end up with different characteristics
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What are structural proteins?
They are part of things like skin, hair, blood and the cytoplasm in our cells. For example, Collagen is a structural protein that is found in tendons, bones and cartilage
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What are functional proteins?
They break down something. For example, enzymes are proteins that help with digestion by breaking down food molecules - amylase is a digestive enzyme that breaks down starch to moltose
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What is a genotype?
All the genes an organism has
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What is a phenotype?
The characteristics that an organism displays
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Give an example of a characteristic that is controlled by genes!
Dimples, are only controlled by genes. This can be down by one gene or quite often characteristic is controlled by several genes working together, e.g. - eye colour
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Give an example of a characteristic that is controlled by the environment!
Scars, are only only controlled by the environment. They are caused by things like how and where you live.
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What characteristics are controlled but genes and the environment?
Weight, if both parents are skinny, you will probably also be skin. But not if you eat loads of donuts.
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Why do some children resemble both parents, but are identical to neither?
Children get some of their alleles from each parent this is why most children resemble both. They will never be exactly the same because they only share half of the alleles. Therefore, every child has a unique combination of alleles.
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Why is it very unlikely that two siblings will look identically the same?
The genes are shuffled together randomly to make egg and sperm so the chance is tiny as there are a possible 8 million different combinations.
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What does it mean if you are homozygous for trait?
You have two alleles the same for that particular gene
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What does it mean if you are heterozygous for trait?
You have different alleles for that particular gene
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What does it mean if an Allele is dominant?
The dominant will always over power the recessive and therefore always show if present at all. Of course if there are two recessive then only the recessive allele will show as there is not a dominant allele present.
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What sort of chromosomes do men have?
XY - Y causes male
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What sort of chromosomes do women have?
XX - lack of Y causes female
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How does the gene make an embryo into a male?
It causes a specific protein to be made. This protein causes testes to develop (instead of ovaries). The testes then make male sex hormones. This protein isn't produced in females.
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What are Genetic Disorders caused by?
Faulty Alleles
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How are disorders inherited?
One or both parents carry a faulty allele and pass it on to their children
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Name two examples of genetic disorders caused by faulty alleles of a single gene?
Cystic Fibrosis and Huntington's disease
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What are the symptoms of Cystic Fibrosis? (A genetic disorder caused by a Faulty Allele)
Thick mucus in air passages, Difficulty breathing, chest infections and difficulty digesting food.
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What is the chance of being a carrier of Cystic Fibrosis?
1 person in 25.
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If you only have one copy of the allele for Cystic Fibrosis, what will happen?
Nothing, as it is recessive you need to copies for the symptoms of the disease to occur. - people with one copy are known as carriers.
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What are the symptoms of Huntington's Disease? (A genetic disorder caused by a dominant allele)
Tremors, cluminess, memory loss, mood changes and poor concentration! THERE IS NO CURE!
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What is the chance of a child inheriting the disorder if one parent is a carrier?
50%
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What will the carrier of Huntington's disorder be?
A sufferer because the allele is recessive
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What is the problem with Huntington's disease?
The symptoms are found very late (40 years old). Therefore, the disease is already passed on the children and grandchildren.
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Card 2

Front

What is this genetic material arranged into?

Back

Chromosomes

Card 3

Front

How many pairs of chromosomes does a human cell contain?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What gives the chromosomes there shape?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is a gene?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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