Biology (B1) - Variation, Reproduction and New Technology

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What are chromosomes?
Thread like structures in the nucleus of a cell which carry genes.
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What is in the nuclei of sex cells (gametes)?
One single set of chromosomes. So nuclei of male and feHmale sex cells contain one set of genes.
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How is the genetic information passed on?
During reproduction. So the offspring cells contain two sets of genes, from each parent. This is why in most body cells the chromosomes are in pairs. Different genes control different characteristics.
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What is asexual reproduction?
Reproduction that does not involve the fusion of gametes. All the genetic information comes from one parent, so all the offspring is identical to the parent.
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What are identical copies produced by asexual reproduction called?
Clones.
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What is sexual reproduction?
Reproduction that involved the fusion of gametes (egg and sperm in animals). There is a mixture of genetic information, so the offspring shows variation.
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What are the differences in the characteristics of the same kind due to?
Differences in the genes they have inherited, the conditions in which they have developed, a combination of the two.
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How might plants be affected?
By lack of light, nutrients of space to grow. The weaker plants may have the same genes as the healthier plants but can't grow well if deprived.
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How might human development be affected during pregnancy?
If the mother smokes or drinks a lot of alcohol, the baby may have a small birth weight.
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How are clones used in farming?
Taking cuttings and growing them is cheap and effective.
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What is tissue culture?
Taking small groups of cells from a plant and growing them under special conditions is expensive. It can be used to reproduce large numbers of rare or top quality plants.
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How does an embryo transplant work?
It can be used to clone animals. An embryo with unspecialised cells is split into smaller groups of cells. Each group of genetically identical cells is transplanted and allowed to develop in a host animal.
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Why are animals or plants sometimes genetically modified?
To produce useful substances before they are cloned.
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What is adult cell cloning?
When the nucleus of an adult cell (e.g. skin cell), replaces the nucleus of an egg cell to form a new cell.
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How does adult cell cloning work?
The new cell is given an electric shock and starts to divide to make a ball of cells (embryo) which is identical to the adult cell. The embryo is placed in the womb once it has developed into a ball of cells.
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What are the advantages of adult cell cloning?
Cloning can save animals from extinction and they have uses in medicine.
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What are the disadvantages of adult cell cloning?
It could be unethical. It limits variation. It can be a problem for natural selection if the environment changes.
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What is genetic engineering?
Changing the genetic make up of an organism.
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What is genetic engineering used for?
Transferring genes. A gene is cut out of a chromosome of an organism using an enzyme and then placed in the chromosome of another organism.
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When are genes sometimes place in a difference species?
The gene to produce insulin for humans can be placed in bacteria. The bacteria can produce large amounts of insulin to treat diabetes.
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What are genetically modified plants?
Crops with changed genes. They may be insect of herbicide resistant and usually have increased yields.
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What are the advantages of cloning and genetic engineering?
Can produce cattle with useful characteristics. Can make copies of the best animals. It can cure patients who have a genetic disorder. Medical drugs can be produced.
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What are the disadvantages of cloning and genetic engineering?
Genes could accidentally be introduced into wild flowers. Insects which are not pests might be affect by GM crops. Eating GM crops could affect human health. Might not be ethical.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is in the nuclei of sex cells (gametes)?

Back

One single set of chromosomes. So nuclei of male and feHmale sex cells contain one set of genes.

Card 3

Front

How is the genetic information passed on?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is asexual reproduction?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are identical copies produced by asexual reproduction called?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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