Biology (B1) - Keeping Healthy

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  • Created by: Roma
  • Created on: 16-12-13 17:07
What is a healthy diet?
A diet with the right balance of food types.
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What do carbohydrates, fats and proteins do?
Release energy and build cells.
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What do mineral ions and vitamins do?
Keep the body healthy.
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What happens if your diet is unbalanced?
You become malnourished.
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What does exercise do?
Release energy and it increases the metabolic rate, therefore increasing the rate of chemical reactions.
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What can affect your metabolic rate?
Muscle to fat ratio and inherited factors.
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What happens if you eat too much?
You can become overweight and obese. This can lead to severe healthy problems e.g. type 2 diabetes.
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How can you reduce health problems caused by being overweight?
Eat less carbohydrates and increase exercise.
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Why else and some people unhealthy?
They have too little food. They find it difficult to walk and may suffer from deficiency diseases.
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What is the different between good and bad cholesterol?
Good cholesterol is needed for your cell membranes and to make vital substances. Bad cholesterol can be inherited or be increased by consuming foods high in saturated fat. Bad cholesterol can lead to heart disease.
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How can a person lower high cholesterol levels?
By exercising more, therefore increasing their metabolic rate.
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What are pathogens?
Tiny microorganisms - usually bacteria or viruses. They cause infectious diseases.
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What happens where bacteria or viruses enter the body?
They reproduce rapidly and can make you feel ill by producing toxins.
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What are the differences between bacteria and viruses?
Viruses are much smaller and reproduce inside the cells. The damage to the cells also makes you ill.
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What did Semmelweiss discover?
Washing hands removes pathogens.
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How does the body prevent pathogens doing damage?
The skin prevents pathogens entering the body, and they are also trapped by mucus and killed by stomach acid.
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How do white blood cells defend the body?
Ingesting pathogens, so they can be digested and destroyed. Produce antibodies to help destroy particular pathogens. Produce antitoxins to counteract the toxins.
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What is antibiotics?
A drug to kill infective bacteria in the body.
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Why are viruses difficult to kill?
They reproduce inside the cells, so any treatment could damage the cells.
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What do drugs like painkillers do?
Relieve symptoms of a disease but do not kill the pathogen?
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How do you get rid of the pathogens?
Your immune system will usually overcome the viral pathogens/
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What could non pathogenic bacteria be used for?
Laboratory investigations. A culture of microorganisms can be used to find the effect of antibiotics on bacteria.
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Why do these investigations need to be uncontaminated.
For health and safety. If the culture is contaminated other bacteria could grow, including pathogens.
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Where might contamination come from?
Skin, air, soil or water.
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What must you do to culture microorganisms in a laboratory?
Give them liquid or a gel containing nutrients - carbs used as an energy source. Provide warmth and oxygen. Keep them incubated at 25 at school and 35 in industry.
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How do you keep a culture pure?
Kill the bacteria on the equipments - pass metal loops through a flame; boil solutions and agar. Prevent microorganisms from the air getting into equipment.
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What is a mutation?
When a pathogen changes. Few people are immune to mutated pathogens so they can spread quickly.
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What is the difference between an epidemic and a pandemic?
An epidemic is a disease that spreads within a country. A pandemic is a disease that spreads across countries.
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How has MRSA evolved through natural selection and become resistant?
Mutations produce new resistant strains. The other pathogens die but the resistant bacteria survive to reproduce new resistance strains.
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Why should antibiotics not be used for mild infections?
To slow down the rate of the development of resistant strains.
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What are in vaccines?
Dead or inactive forms of a pathogen.
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How do vaccines work?
White blood cells react to the pathogen by producing antibodies. It prevents further infections because the body responds quickly by presenting more antibodies when the recognise the antigen.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What do carbohydrates, fats and proteins do?

Back

Release energy and build cells.

Card 3

Front

What do mineral ions and vitamins do?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What happens if your diet is unbalanced?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What does exercise do?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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