Biology (B1) - Coordination and Control

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  • Created by: Roma
  • Created on: 16-12-13 18:26
What does the nervous system do?
Allows humans to react to their surroundings and coordinates behaviour.
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What do receptors?
Detect external stimuli.
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What do electrical impulses do?
Pass to the brain along neurons.
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What does the brain do?
Coordinate responses.
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Explain the steps in a reflex action (reflex arc)?
Receptor - detects stimulus. Sensory neuron - transmits impulses to the CNS. Relay neuron - passes the impulses on. Motor neuron is stimulated. Impulse passes to an effector. Action is taken.
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What is a synapse?
A junction between two neurons. Chemicals transmit the impulses across the gap
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What is follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)?
A hormone made by the pituitary gland and causes an egg to mature and oestrogen to be produced.
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What is oestrogen?
A hormone produced by the ovaries which inhibits further production of FSH. It stimulates the production of LH and stimulates the womb lining to develop to receive the fertilised egg.
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What is luteinising hormone (LH) ?
A hormone made by the pituitary gland that stimulates the egg to be released from the ovary.
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What is the contraceptive pill?
A pill which contains oestrogen and progesterone or just progesterone which has fewer side effects. The pill prevents production of FSH so no eggs are produced.
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What is fertility treatment?
When a woman is given FSH AND LH if she cannot produce mature eggs. The FSH causes the eggs to mature and the LH stimulates ovulation,
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What are the advantages of fertility treatment?
The pill helps reduce family size which reduces poverty. It allows women to plan pregnancies. Fertility drugs helps couples who are having IVF and helps couples to have a baby.
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What are the disadvantages of fertility treatment.
The pill can cause side effects and some people object to it due to ethical or religious reasons. IVF is expensive. Some people think it's unethical for older women to have babies by IVF. Extra embryos produced may be destroyed.
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What internal conditions are controlled in the body?
Water content, ion content, temperature and blood sugar levels.
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Why should water levels and ion content be controlled?
Water is always leaving the body as we breathe out and sweat. We lose excess water in urine. We lose ions in sweat and urine.
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Why should temperature levels be controlled?
If the temperature in the body is not controlled, the enzymes in the body might stop working.
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Why should blood sugar levels be controlled?
Sugar in the blood is the energy source for cells. Blood sugar levels are controlled by the pancreas.
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What is phototropism?
When plant shoots grow towards light.
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What is gravitropism?
When plant roots grown downwards towards gravity.
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What is an auxin?
A hormone which controls gravitropism and phototropism. If there is an unequal distribution of auxin, there is unequal growth and there is a bend in the root or shoot.
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What can plant growth hormones be used as?
Weed killers and to stimulate root growth.
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When does the root grow more?
In the root, more auxin gathers on the lower side but it grows most on the side with least auxin. This makes it bend down , and when it has done this, the auxin becomes evenly spread again.
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When doe the shoot grow more?
In the shoot, more auxin gathers on the lower side. The shoot grows more on the side with the most auxin, making it grow away from gravity. When it has fully grown upwards, the auxin becomes evenly spread again.
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How are hormones used in plants?
Hormones are used to encourage roots to grow before the cutting is planted. Some hormones encourage fruits to ripen. Incorrectly used hormones could harm the environment eg. weed killers may harm other useful plants.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What do receptors?


Detect external stimuli.

Card 3


What do electrical impulses do?


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Card 4


What does the brain do?


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Card 5


Explain the steps in a reflex action (reflex arc)?


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