Biology B1.3

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What is the sun a source of?
Energy for almost every life form on Earth
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Why is energy used up at each stage?
As the organism uses it for how it pleases, or it is lost to surroundings as heat
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Why do you hardly get food chains with more than 5 tropic levels?
As so much energy is uses up at each stage.
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What do pyramids of biomass show?
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What is biomass?
How much the creatures at each level of a food chain would weigh if you put them together.
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What is the biomass?
A store of energy so the pyramid also shows how much energy is at each stage of the food chain
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Why does the mass of the organisms go down as you go up one trophic level?
Most of the biomass is lost so it does not become the biomass in the next level
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Define parasites
They live in or on a host and they take what they need to survive without giving back.
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Give examples of a parasites
Fleas: live in their host and **** the blood of it. Head lice: **** the blood of scalps. Tapeworms: attach to the intestinal wall of their host and absorb nutrients causing the host malnutrition. Mistletoe grows on trees and absorb their water and
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Define mutualism
a relationship where both of the organisms benefit
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Give some examples or mutalistic relationship
Oxpeckers: They eat pests on the buffalo but also warn if of predators. Cleaner fish: east dead skin and parasites of larger fish and get food, and don't get eaten. Nitrogen fixing bacteria in legumes: legumes carry bacteria in their roots which get
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Give some examples or mutalistic relationship pt2
a supply of sugar from the plant and the plant get nutrients from the bacteria. Chemosynthetic bacteria in deep-sea vents live inside giant tube worms or in the giils of molecules in deep sea vents. The worm supply the bacteria with chemicals from th
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Give some examples or mutalistic relationship pt3
and the bacteria turn it into food for themselves and the host
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Why is the population growing so rapidly?
Modern medicine and better farming
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What are the problems due to great amounts of people?
Raw materials shortage, More waste, More pollutants (phosphates from detergents, nitrates from fertilisers and sulphur dioxide)
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What do fertilisers do?
Help plants grow as the nitrates in the fertiliser replace the nitriates that the crops take in from the soil.
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How can fertilisers cause problems?
It finds its way into rivers when too much s applied. This causes rapid growth of algae, plants die due to lack of light. Amounts of microbes increase as they feed on the dead material. Microbes use up the oxygen so the fish have none (europhication)
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Explain the practical to show the affects of pollutants on plant growth ?
Cress seed one, one with nitrates (pollutant) one without
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What happens if we don't recycle
There is more waste so more land is used for landfill and some toxic waste will pollute the land
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Why is recycling beneficial?
They use less energy, create less pollution, use less natural resources.
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Why do we recycle metals?
They re extracted from ores so their is a limited amount of them. Also mining and extracting them take a lot of energy, money and the machinery release carbon dioxide
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Why do we recycle paper?
It is made from wood so fewer trees have to be cut down which helps deforestation. It uses 28-70% less energy than manufacturing paper
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Why do we recycle plastics?
They are made from crude oil so recycling helps conserve our oil resources. Plus they tale a long time to decompose in landfill sites which waste space.
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What are the problems of recycling?
It uses energy for collecting, sorting, cleaning and processing. Seperation can be time-consuming. It is expensive. Sometimes the new products aren't that good. Somethings can't be endlessly recycled.
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How much waste is produced in the UK a year?
100 million tonnes
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What must happen to cars by 2015?
They must be made from 95% recyclable materials
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What do indicator species do?
They are very sensitive to levels of change so they show the effect of human activities
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Explain how indicator species show the effect of water pollution
If pollutants get into the river the bacterial population increases and use up more oxygen. Some invertebrates like freashwater shrimps can show that water is clean if they live in it. Vice versa for polluted waters and blood worms
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Explain how indicator species show the effect of air pollution
Certain types of lichen are sensitive to the conc. of sulphur dioxide. The air is clean if their is lots of lichen. Blackspot fungus is found on rose leaves which indicates clean air.
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What can non-living indicators show?
The level of pollution
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What are dissolved oxygen meters and chemical tests used for?
Measure the conc. of dissolved oxygen in water to show how water pollution is changing
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What electronic meters and various laboratory tests used for?
To measure the amounts of sulphur dioxide in the air to see how pollution is changing.
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What are living things made of?
The elements they take from the world around them
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What else do plants take from the environment.
Oxygen hydrogen and nitrogen. they turn these into complex compounds
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Why can't the nitrogen in the air be used by animals and plants.
It is too un-reactive.
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What is nitrogen needed for?
Making proteins for growth.
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What does nitrogen in the air have to be tuned into before it is useful?
Nitrogen compunds
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How do plants and animals get their proteins?
Plants: The soil to make proteins. Animals: eating plants so the nitrogen compounds are passed along the food chaon
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What do decomposers do?
Break down dead plants and plants in the soil. It then turns urea and proteins into ammonia
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What does nitrifying bacteria do?
Convert ammonia into nitrates. Which is then taken up by plants, so the nitrogen in these organisms is recycles
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What is nitrogen fixation?
The process of turning nitrogen from the air into nitrogen compounds that plants an use.
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How can nitrogen fixation happen?
Lightning: The energy from it makes the nitrogen react with the oxygen in the air to create nitrates. Nitrogen-fixing bacteria in roots of plants
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Where does nitrogen fixing bacteria live?
In soil
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What are the four types of bacteria in the nitrogen cycle?
Decomposer bacteria. Nitirifying bacteria. Nitrogen fixing bacteria. Denitriyfying bacteria- Turns nitrates back to nitrogen gas
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Where does decomposer bacteria, nitirifying bacteria, denitriyfying bacteria live?
In nodules on the roots of legume plants. The plants have a mutualistic relationship with the bacteria.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Why is energy used up at each stage?


As the organism uses it for how it pleases, or it is lost to surroundings as heat

Card 3


Why do you hardly get food chains with more than 5 tropic levels?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What do pyramids of biomass show?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What is biomass?


Preview of the front of card 5
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