Biology B1.3

What are most drugs?
Chemical substances that affect the central nervous system
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What do they cause changes in?
Psychological behaviour
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What things can happen with drugs?
Addiction, tolerance and withdrawal symptoms
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What do depressants do to the body?
They decrease the activity of the brain. Slows down responses of the nervous system which causes slow reactions and poor judgement
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What do stimulants so to the body?
They increase the activity of the brain. They increase the amount of neurotransmitter and neurone synapses. They increase reaction speed and make you feel more alert and awake
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What are stimulant drugs mostly used for?
Treating depression
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What do painkillers do?
They decrease the feeling of pain. It blocks the nerve impulses to the brain.
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What is an example of painkillers?
Morphine
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What do hallucinogens do?
They distort what is seen or heard by alternating pathways nerve impulses travel along.
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What is reaction time?
How fast you respond
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How can you measure reaction time?
The ruler experiment.
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What does tobacco smoke contain?
Carbon Monoxide
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How does tobacco smoke reduce the amount of oxygen a person carries?
The carbon monoxide combines irreversibly with the haemoglobin in red blood cells so the blood carries less oxygen.
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How can smoking be a danger to pregnant women?
It can deprive the fetus with oxygen so it can be underweight.
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What else does tobacco smoke contain?
Carcinogens.
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How does tobacco smoke cause cancer?
The carcinogens (tar) can lead to cancer.
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What percentages of lung cancer are linked to smoking?
90%
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What are the short-term affects of alcohol?
Slows your reactions down. Blurred vision and lower inhibitions.
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What are the long-term affects of alcohol?
It can kill liver cells which stops blood flow to the liver. (cirrhosis) This can lead to damage to the rest of the body as the liver can not clean the blood. It can also lead to brain damage.
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Why do people need to change their lifestyle to get an organ?
As there is a shortage of organ donors
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Why do people think that obese people and alcoholics do not deserve organ transplants?
As they brought their problems to their self
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Define infectious diseases
A diseases that can be transmitted from one person to another
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What are pathogens?
Micro-organisms that cause diseases
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What do pathogens include?
Bacteria, protozoa, fungi and viruses
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How do pathogens spread through water? What can come of this?
People drinking or bathing in dirty water. Cholera is a bacterial infection that causes diarrhoea and dehydration. It can be spread by drinking contaminated water
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How do pathogens spread by food? What can come of this?
By people eating the contaminated food. Salmonella bacteria cause food poisoning which can be found in food not cooked properly or kept out too long.
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How do pathogens spread by air? What can come of this?
They are carried in the air by droplet from when you cough and sneeze which other people can breathe in. Influenza virus that causes flu is spread like this
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How do pathogens spread by contact? What can come of this?
Touching contaminated surfaces. Athletes foot is a fungus that makes skin flake off and can be spread by shower floor and towels.
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How do pathogens spread by body fluids? What can come of this?
Sharing needles (blood) and breast feeding (breast milk) and through sex (*****). HIV and AIDS are spread by bodily viruses
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How do pathogens spread by animal vectors? What can come of this?
Vectors are animals that spread disease. Mosquito carries protozoan that causes malaria. This causes brain or kidney damage. House fly carries dysentery bacteria that can cause diarrhoea by touching food
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What two barriers stop pathogens entering the body?
Physical and Chemical
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How does skin protect us?
It prevents the pathogens entry. Also if it gets damaged blood clots seal cuts to keep things out
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How does the respiratory system protect us?
The respiratory tract is lined with mucus and cilia. The mucus catches dust and bacteria before they can go into the lungs and the cilia push the mucus away from the lungs.
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How do the eyes protect us?
Tears are a chemical lysozyme which kill the bacteria on the eye surface.
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How does the stomach protect us?
Pathogens in food are killed by the hydrochloric acid in our stomachs
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How do plants defend themselves from pathogens?
They produce chemicals, some can even be anti-bacterial.
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Whatdo humans use tea tree for?
Tea tree produces and oil that kills bacteria. Australians have used it in traditional medicines for centuries. Now we use the purified oil for antibacterial products like facial cleansers.
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What are antiseptics used for?
They are used to stop disease spreading outside the body
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What are antiseptics? What do they do? What are they used for?
They are chemicals that destroy bacteria or stop them growing. They clean wounds and surfaces to prevent infection rather than curing it. They are used in hospitals and bathroom cleaners.
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What are antibiotics? What do they do? What are they used for?
They are used insie the body to treat infections. They treat against bacteria and fungi.
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How do antibacterials work?
(Penicillin) Antibacterials treat bacterial infections by killing the bacteria or stopping it from growing. Bacteria can become resistant to the antibacterials over time.
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How do anti fungals work?
(Nystatin) They kill the fungi or stop it from growing/
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How can bacteria become resistant to antibiotics?
One bacteria can be resistant to the antibiotic this will reproduce whilst the others will kill and it will create a lot more bacteria which are resistant to it.
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What does MRSA do and what is it resistant to?
It causes serious wound infections. Methicillin.
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What increase the amount of resistant strains?
Overperscribing antibiotics. This is why you can't get any for mild infections
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Explain how to test antibiotics and antiseptics
Pour hot sterilised Jelly into the sterile petri dish. This will contain carbohydrates, minerals, proteins and vitamins so the micro organisms need to grow. Then add bacteria to the dish. Soak one disc in an antibiotic, one in a sterile water, one
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Explain how to test antibiotics and antiseptics pt2
in another antibiotic. Leave the disc at 25 degrees for 24 hours. The bigger the ring around the disc the more affective it is.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What do they cause changes in?

Back

Psychological behaviour

Card 3

Front

What things can happen with drugs?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What do depressants do to the body?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What do stimulants so to the body?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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