Biology A2 Module 2 Excretion definition flashcards

Definitions of Module 2 excretion of A2 biology

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The removal of the amine group from an amino acid to produce ammonia.
Deamination
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An unusual blood vessel that has capillaries at both ends - it carries blood from the digestive system to the liver.
The Hepatic Portal Vein
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One of the waste products from the breakdown of haemoglobin. It is the brown pigment that gives faeces its colour.
Bilirubin
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Liver cells, they are specialised to perform a wide range of metabolic functions.
Hepatocytes
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An excretory product formed from the breakdown of excess amino acids.
Urea
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The process in which ammonia is converted to urea. It occurs partly in the cytosol and partly in mitochondria, as ATP is used.
The Ornithine Cycle
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The conversion of toxic molecules to less toxic or non-toxic molecules.
Detoxification
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The functional unit of the kidney. It is a microscopic tubule that recieves fluid from the blood capillaries in the cortex and converts this to urine, which drains into the ureter.
The nephron
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A fine network of capillaries that increases the local blood pressure to squeeze fluid out of the blood. It is surrounded by a cup or funnel shaped capsule shich collects the fluid and leads into the nephron.
The glomerulus
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In this process useful substances are reabsorbed from the nephron into the bloodstream while other excretory substances remain in the nephron.
Selective Reabsorption
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The primary function of these cells appears to be the breakdown and recycling of old red blood cells.
Kupffer cells
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A cup-shaped capsule in which blood is pushed into from the glomerulus by the process of ultrafiltration.
The Bowman's capsule
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Brings blood into the glomerulus. Wider than the arteriole which carries blood away from the glomerulus. This helps to increase blood pressure.
Afferent arteriole
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Filtration at a molecular level - as in the glomerulus where large molecules and cells are left in the blood and smaller molecules pass into the Bowman's capsule.
Ultrafiltration
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Specialised cells that make up the lining of the Bowman's capsule.
Podocytes
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Microscopic folds of the cell surface membrane that increase the surface area of the cell.
Microvilli
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Proteins in the cell surface membrane that allow the facilitated diffusion of simple ions to be accompanied by transport of a larger molecule such as glucose.
Co-transporter proteins
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Special proteins in the cell surface membrane that actively transport sodium and potassium ions against their concentration gradients.
Sodium-potassium pumps
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The arrangement of a tubule in a sharp hairpin so that one part of the tubule passes close to another part of the tubule with the fluid flowing in opposite directions. This allows exchange between the contents.
A hairpin countercurrent mechanism
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Carries blood away from the glomerulus. Narrower than the arteriole which carries blood to the glomerulus.
Efferent arteriole
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Consists of waste substances that may be toxic or are produced in excess by the reactions inside cells.
Metabolic waste
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The control and regulation of the water potential of the body and body fluids. In humans the kidney controls the water potential of the blood.
Osmoregulation
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The coiled portion of the nephron between th loop of Henle and the collecting duct.
The distal convoluted tubule
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The part of the brain that contains neurosecretory cells and various receptors that monitor the blood.
The hypothalamus
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Receptor cells that monitor the water potential of the blood.
Osmoreceptors
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Specialised cells that act like nerve cells but release a hormone into the blood. ADH is manufactured in the cell body and passes down the axon to be stored in the terminal bulb, where it is released if an action potential passes down the axon.
Neurosecretory cells
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The time tsken for a substance's concentration to drop to half its original value.
Half-life
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A partially permeable membrane that seperates the dialysis fluid from the patient's blood in a dialysis machine.
The Dialysis membrane
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It is released from the pituitary gland and acts on the collecting ducts in the kidneys to increase their reabsorption of water.
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
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The hind part of the pituitary gland, which releases ADH.
The posterior pituitary gland
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A complex solution that matches the composition of body fluids. Used in dialysis.
Dialysis fluid
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A hormone released by human embryos; its presence in the mother's urine confirms pregnancy.
Human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG)
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Blood is taken from a vein and passed through a dialysis machine so that exchange can occur across an artificially partially permeable membrane.
Haemodialysis
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These antibodies are identical because they have been produced by cells that are clones of one original cell.
Monoclonical antibodies
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Drugs that mimic the action of steroid hormones that increase muscle growth.
Anabolic steroids
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A technique used to seperate substances in gaseous state.
Gas chromatography
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Dialyis fluid is pumped into the body cavity so that exchange can occur across the peritoneal membrane.
Peritoneal Dialysis
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The removal of metabolic waste from the body.
Excretion
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A chart produced when substances are separated by movement of a solvent along a permeable material such as paper or gel.
A chromatogram
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The use of a partially permeable membrane to fliter the blood.
Dialysis
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Diffusion that is enhanced by the action of proteins in the cell membrane.
Facilitated diffusion
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As fluid moves along the nephron, substances are removed form the fluid and reabsorbed into the blood.
Selective Reabsorption
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

An unusual blood vessel that has capillaries at both ends - it carries blood from the digestive system to the liver.

Back

The Hepatic Portal Vein

Card 3

Front

One of the waste products from the breakdown of haemoglobin. It is the brown pigment that gives faeces its colour.

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Liver cells, they are specialised to perform a wide range of metabolic functions.

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

An excretory product formed from the breakdown of excess amino acids.

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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