Biology A2

IN PROGRESS

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What are the five steps to creating a genetic profile?
1) Obtain a DNA Sample 2) Use PCR to amplify the DNA 3) Add a fluorescent tag 4) Use Gel Electrophoresis to separate the DNA 5) View the gel under UV light
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How is gel electrophoresis used to separate DNA? (3)
The DNA is placed in a well in a slab of gel that's covered in a buffer solution that conducts electricity. 2) An electrical current is passed through the gel (-) 3) Short DNA fragments move faster and further so DNA separates according to length
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What is photolysis?
The splitting of water molecules that takes place during the light-dependent reaction in photosynthesis.
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In short, what happens in Light-dependent reactions?
Light-dependent reactions use energy from light and hydrogen from photolysis of water to produce reduced NADP, ATP and the waste product oxygen. The oxygen is either used directly in respiration or released into the atmosphere.
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In short, what happens in Light-Independent reactions?
Light-Independent reactions use the reduced NADP and ATP from the light-dependent reactions to reduce carbon dioxide to carbohydrates.
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What is reduction?
The addition of an electron to a molecule.
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What is oxidation?
The loss of an electron by a molecule.
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Where do light-dependent reactions take place?
In the thylakoid membranes of the chloroplast.
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What is photophosphorylation?
The synthesis of ATP using light energy during the light-dependent phase of photosynthesis.
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What is photolysis?
The splitting of water molecules that takes place during the light-dependent reaction during photosynthesis.
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What is ATP?
Adenosine triphosphate: This is the most important energy transfer molecule within cells. It moves energy around the cell from energy-yielding reactions to energy-requiring reactions.
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Where does the light-independent reaction take place within the cell?
In the stroma of the chloroplast
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Define Gross primary productivity (GPP)
The rate at which energy is incorporated into organic molecules by an ecosystem.
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Define Net primary productivity (NPP)
The rate at which energy is transferred into the organic molecules that make up new plant biomass is called net primary productivity
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Card 2

Front

How is gel electrophoresis used to separate DNA? (3)

Back

The DNA is placed in a well in a slab of gel that's covered in a buffer solution that conducts electricity. 2) An electrical current is passed through the gel (-) 3) Short DNA fragments move faster and further so DNA separates according to length

Card 3

Front

What is photolysis?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

In short, what happens in Light-dependent reactions?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

In short, what happens in Light-Independent reactions?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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