Biology 9A

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What does the nucleus of a cell contain?
Genetic material.
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What is inside genetic material?
Chromosomes containing genes.
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What are the features of a sperm cell?
Tail to swim - flagellum, chemicals to get in the egg, streamlined to help swim and enter the egg.
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What are the features of an egg cell?
Lining so the sperm can enter, big so lots of sperm can get to the egg, cytoplasm contains food to provide energy for the fertilised egg cell.
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Name some examples of environmental characteristics.
Freckles, hair length, body weight, accent.
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Name some examples of inherited characteristics.
Blood group, genetic diseases, eye colour, natural hair colour.
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What is inside a cell etc...
Cell -> Nucleus -> Chromosome -> Gene -> DNA -> Base pair.
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What are the male and female sex chromosomes?
Male = XY, Female = XX.
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How many pairs of chromosomes are there in a nucleus?
23 pairs.
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What is an allele?
Different versions of a gene for a characteristic.
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What is selective breeding?
The process when humans selectively breed two animals because of their characteristics.
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How do you do selective breeding?
Collect the ***** from the male bull and freeze it until it is needed. Put the ***** into a cows ****** using a long tube - artificial insemination.
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What is one good characteristic for a chicken?
A chicken which lay big and yummy eggs!
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How do you clone an animal?
An egg cell is removed from the ovary -> The nucleus is removed from an udder cell of a male -> The nucleus is inserted into the empty egg -> It is given a 'zap' of electricity -> It develops into a ball of 'stem' cells -> Embryo planted in uterus.
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Why is cloning animals useful?
People want the animals to survive, not be extinct and they could get good meat - like selective breeding.
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Why are some people against cloning animals?
The animals may not live very long because some organs may be faulty.
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Why do people want to clone humans?
Because if someone they loved died, they would want to get the 'same' person back.
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Why are we not allowed to clone humans?
It is risky - the fetus can die or have organ problems.
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How do pollen grains naturally get from one flower to another?
Bees, wind.
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What is the process called when pollen grains get from one flower to another?
Pollination.
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What are the round, pointy bits at the top of a flower?
Pollen grain.
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What surrounds the pollen grain in a flower?
The stigma.
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What is the tube going down a flower?
Pollen tube.
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Where is the ovary?
At the bottom of a flower, surrounding the egg cell.
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How are identical twins formed?
When a fertilised egg cell divides into two separate embryos. These embryos have many similarities.
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How are fraternal twins formed?
When two egg cells get fertilised by two sperm cells to make two embryos but with separate placentas when identical twins share the same placenta.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is inside genetic material?

Back

Chromosomes containing genes.

Card 3

Front

What are the features of a sperm cell?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are the features of an egg cell?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Name some examples of environmental characteristics.

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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