Biology

  • Created by: Jess
  • Created on: 08-01-13 19:17
How is blood plasma created?
Vetricular systole
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Features of arteries
No valves, thick muscular wall, thick elastic tissue, carry deoxygenation blood, higher pressure
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Describe movement of blood plasma along capillary
1) Blood plasma moves out of capillary 2) enters/forms tissue fluid 3) plasma proteins remain, too large to push through 4) fluid moves down pressure gradient 5) hydrostatic pressure is greater than water potential
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why does the potometer only give an estimate of transpiration?
1) only measures water uptake 2) not all water is taken up 3) water is lost by photosynthesis
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why are lungs considered to be an organ?
a collection of tissues working together to perform gas exchange
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function of lignin
1) supports and strengthens xylem - stops collapse 2) waterproof - reduces water loss 3) adhesion - holds molecules together
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functions of glycoproteins
1) cell recognition 2) cell communication 3) cell adhesion 4) antigens 5) cell stabilising
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function of pitts?
to allow substances to pass through vessels
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magnification of a light microscope?
x 1500
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magnification of a transmission electron microscope?
x500 000
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precautions to be taken when using a potometer?
1) make sure mouth piece is disinfected 2) use fresh air
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why do you have to wear a nose piece?
to avoid air loss through nose
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enzymes that catalyze the hydration of carbon dioxide
carbonic adhdrase
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compound formed from carbon dioxide and water
carboic acid
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how do the diaphram and intercostal muscles cause inspiration?
diapram and intercostal muscles contract. Diaphram flattens and move downwards and intercostal muscles move up and out. Volume rises and pressure decreases.
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why do large organisms need a specialised gaseous echange surface?
higher demand for oxygen , smaller SA to vol ratio
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how do larger substances enter a cell?
through carrier proteins and enocytosis
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what happens to the cell in concentrated solution?
water moves out by osmosis, higher conc inside cell, vacoule will decrease
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what happens to a cell in distilled water?
water moves in, higher conc out of cell, expand and become turgid
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function of elastic tissue
recoil to prevent bursting and help expel air
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function of cilliated epithelium
waft mucus away from alveoli
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function of smooth muscle
constricts airways, controls diameter of airways
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why do you stain samples
make organelles visible , to see detail
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features of fetal oxyhaemoglobin
1)higher affinity for oxygen, 2) lower partial pressure, 3)takes up o2 more at a lower partial pressure. 4)Hb becomes more saturated at a lower partial pressure
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benefit of bohr shift on actively respiring tissues
1) activiely respiring tissues need o2 and energy for aerobic respiration 2) there is less Hb available to bind with o2 3) bohr shift causes more o2 to be released
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uptake of stains by active transport
the lower the temp, more stain taken up, all stain in cell, none outside. taken up against concentration gradient. At higher temperatures, the enzymes are denatured
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why dont some cells stain at lower temperatures?
no energy to take up stain, cells are dead
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what happens to cell membranes at higher temperatures?
the cell membrane breaks down/destroyed, the phospholipid layer becomes more fluid. the membrane becomes permable. proteins are denatured h
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why do cells lose their colour at higher temperatures?
more permable, the colour leaks out by diffusion down the concentration gradient.
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process of budding
1) nucleus divides 2) cell swells on side 3) nucleus moves into bud 4) bud becomes separate cell(cytokinesis)
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how to appoplast cells move through the cell?
through the spaces in the cell walls until it reaches endodermis
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how to symplast pathways move through the cell?
goes through the living parts ( cytoplasm/ plasmodesmata)
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what is the casparian *****?
waxy ***** in the cell walls, block apoplast pathway meaning it has to go through the symplast
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how is water moved up leaves?
1) water moves into xylem by osmosis down the conc gradient 2) high hydrosttic pressure and bottom 3) low pressure at top where water will be eveporated from at leaves 4) water is under tension 5) pulled up by cohesion/adhesion6)mass flow 7)down PG
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are cells in xylem and phloem dead or alive?
xylem- dead phloem - living
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do xylem and phloem have pits?
xylem have pits phloem dont have pitts
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do xylem and phloem have lignin?
xylem have lignin phloem dont
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what ways are substances moved in xylem and phloem?
xylem moves upwards, phloem moves in any direction from source to sink
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what happens during interphase?
protein synthesies, DNA is checked, cell growth, growth of organelles
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how does cell division in plants differ from animals
in plants it occurs in meristem ONLY, there are no centrioles, new cell walls form
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what are the feautres of alveoli that enable gas exhange
large SA;vol ratio, near capillaries, thin wall, made up of cilliated and squamous cells
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how does histame work?
binds to a receptor on membrane, complements shape and triggers a response
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effect of permability on capillary walls
let mopre tissue fluid through, proteins that are larger through, increase the pressure
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features of xylem
hollow, no end walls, continuous, contain lignin, pits
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whats transpiration
water loss from leaves via stomata
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why are stems cut before?
remove air bubbles, incase of a blockage , restore column of water
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whats the function of a cytoskeleton
support, structure, movement of organelles, make spindle fibres, shape
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what is differentiation
where a cell becomes specialised
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how is a nuetrophil adapted for its function
flexible to engulf foreign particles, lysosomes to break down particles, contain mitochindia, golgi, many ribosomes
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why dont plant cells burst when placed in waterq
cell wall, strength
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how to make something more accurate?
quantity, frequency,
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how to make something more reliable?
calculate a mean, identify anomilies, observe more
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function of squamous epithelium
to prevent alveoli from collapsing
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how to cells and tissues work together to enable gas exchange
red blood cells, cilliated, squamous, diaphram, intercostal muscles, goblet cells,smooth muscle, macrophages, cartiliage to hold airways open
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Features of arteries

Back

No valves, thick muscular wall, thick elastic tissue, carry deoxygenation blood, higher pressure

Card 3

Front

Describe movement of blood plasma along capillary

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

why does the potometer only give an estimate of transpiration?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

why are lungs considered to be an organ?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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