Biology

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  • Created by: Izzywizzy
  • Created on: 11-05-15 12:46
What converts starch into sugars(maltose)?
Amylase enzymes
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What converts proteins into amino acids?
Protease enzymes
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What converts lipids into glycerol and fatty acids?
Lipase enzymes
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What does bile do?
Bile neutralizes the stomach acid and emulsifies fats.
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Where is bile produced and stored?
It is produced in the liver and stored in the gall bladder.
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Is bile an acid or alkaline?
Bile is an alkaline - so therefore it neutralises the acid.
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What are the five ways that plants use glucose?
They use it for respiration, making cell walls, making proteins, storing in seeds, and stored as starch.
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How do plants use glucose for respiration?
They manufacture the glucose in their leaves, and then use some for respiration. This releases energy which enables them to convert the rest of the glucose into other useful substances.
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How do plants use glucose for making proteins?
Glucose is combined with nitrate ions to make amino acids. The amino acids are then turned to proteins.
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Where is amylase made?
The salivary glands, the pancreas and the small intestine.
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Where is protease made?
The stomach, the pancreas and the small intestine.
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Where is lipase made?
The pancreas and the small intestine.
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How do plants use glucose for storing as starch?
Glucose is turned into starch in roots, stems and leaves, ready for use when photosynthesis isn't happening. Starch is insoluble which makes it better for storing.
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What does DNA contain?
DNA contains all the instructions to put an organism together and make it work.
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Where is DNA found?
It is found in the nucleus, in really long molecules called chromosomes.
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What is a gene?
A gene is a section of DNA which contains instructions to make a specific protein.
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How do cells make proteins?
Cells make proteins by stringing 20 amino acids together in a certain order, making thousands of different proteins.
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What are the limiting factors of photosynthesis?
The intensity of light, the volume of CO2 and the temperature.
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What is mitosis?
Mitosis is when a cell reproduces itself by SPLITTING to form TWO IDENTICAL OFFSPRING.
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How does mitosis work?
The chromosomes in the nucleus are copied, and then they line up and split.
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What is mitosis used for?
It is used for growth and repairing cells. It is also used for reproduction in some cells - asexual reproduction.
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What is meiosis?
Meiosis produces cells which have half the normal number of chromosomes - gametes.
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What does meiosis work?
During sexual reproduction, two cells called gametes(egg+sperm) combine to form a new individual. The gametes have 23 chromosomes each, but when they combine they have 46 altogether.
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What are haploid and diploid cells?
Haploid(meiosis) cells have 23 chromosomes and diploid(mitosis) cells have 46 chromosomes.
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What is differentiation?
It is the process by which a cell changes to become specialized for its job.
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What are stem cells?
Stem cells are undifferentiated cells, which can develop into a different type of cell depending on what instruction they are given.
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Where are stem cells found?
They are found in early human embryos, and some adults cells in bone marrow.
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What are stem cells used for?
Stem cells are used for curing diseases and making new cells.
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What are fossils and where are they found?
Fossils are the remains of organisms from many years ago. They are found in rocks.
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How are fossils formed?
Most fossils are formed by gradual replacement by minerals. This is where things that dont decay easily and can last a long time buried, like bones and teeth, are underground. They are replaced by minerals as they decay, forming a rock-like substance
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What other ways are fossils formed?
From casts and impressions, and from preservations in places no decay happens (peat bogs and glaciers).
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When does extinction happen?
Extinction happens if the organism cant evolve quickly enough to changing factors, like a new predator, disease or a catastrophic event.
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What is speciation?
Speciation is the development of a new species.
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When does speciation occur?
When populations of the same species become so different they don't produce fertile offspring.
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What is isolation?
Isolation is where populations of species are seperated. This can be due to a physical barrer, e.g. a flood.
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What is respiration?
Respiration is the process of releasing energy from glucose, which goes on in every cell.
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What is aerobic respiation?
It is respiration using oxygen. It is the most efficient way to release energy from glucose. Most of the reactions take place inside the mitochondria. It happens in all the time in plants and animals.
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What is the word equation for aerobic respiration?
Glucose + Oxygen --> Carbon Dioxide + Water + ENERGY
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What is anaerobic respiration?
It is used to produce energy if there isn't enough oxygen for aerobic respiration, but it doesn't produce as much energy.
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What is the word equation for anaerobic respiration?
Glucose --> Energy + Lactic Acid
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Why isn't anaerobic respiration the best way to convert glucose to energy.
Because lactic acid builds up in the muscle, which gets painful.
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Card 3

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What converts lipids into glycerol and fatty acids?

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Card 4

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What does bile do?

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Card 5

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Where is bile produced and stored?

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