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  • Created by: siobhan5
  • Created on: 10-05-15 13:33
what does the term 'aerobic' mean?
using oxygen
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what is meant by anaerobic respiration?
respiration without using oxygen
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what do muscles need more of during exercise
energy
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what are the two waste products of aerobic respiration?
carbon dioxide and water
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which substance is stored in the muscles and can be converted into glucose?
glycogen
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what is the word equation for aerobic respiration?
glucose + oxygen -> carbon dioxide + water (+energy)
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why do muscles become fatigued during vigorous exercise?
lactic acid builds up in the muscle
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what changes occur to the breathing and heart rate during exercise?
the breathing rate and heart rate increase.
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why do blood vessels in the muscles dilate during exercise?
this allows an increase blood supply to the muscle cells to provide oxygen and glucose more quickly and to remove carbon dioxide faster.
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explain what is meant by an 'oxygen debt'.
the amount of oxygen needed to breakdown the lactic acid produced in anaerobic respiration.
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why do cells divide by mitosis?
to produce identical cells for growth and to replace cells
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how many chromosomes does a human have in each body cell?
23 pairs (or 46)
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which type of cell division produces sex cells?
meiosis
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what molecule are genes made from?
DNA
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what are 'alleles' ?
different forms of a gene
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why does sexual reproduction result in variation?
the genetic material from two parents is brought together when the sperm and egg nuclei fuse.
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explain why offspring produced by asexual reproduction are genetically identical.
they are produced by meiosis. cells from one parent divide to produce identical cells.
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what is meant by the term 'genotype'?
the types of genes present in the cells
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what is meant by a 'heterozygous' individual?
the individual has one dominant and one recessive allele for a condition.
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how old is the earth?
about 4.5 billion years
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when do we believe life on earth began?
around 3.5 billion years ago
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how are fossils dated?
it is possible to date rocks so the fossils are the same age as the rocks the are preserved in.
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why are there no fossils of early life forms?
early life forms were soft-bodied and did not form fossils.
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how might a new competitor cause the extinction of a species?
the original species might be left with too little to eat.
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suggest two ways that people can cause the extinction of some species.
two of: by hunting them for food, by removing the habitat of the species, through polluting the environment, by introducing new competitors to the species, by accidentally introducing a new disease.
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what are two main ideas put forward for the extinction of dinosaurs?
A giant asteroid colliding with earth & due to sea ice melting and cooling the sea temperature by about 9 degrees .
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what is meant by 'geographical isolation'?
two populations of an organism become separated and live in two different regions, e.g. two sides of a river, either side of a mountain range.
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Card 2

Front

what is meant by anaerobic respiration?

Back

respiration without using oxygen

Card 3

Front

what do muscles need more of during exercise

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

what are the two waste products of aerobic respiration?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

which substance is stored in the muscles and can be converted into glucose?

Back

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