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What is amylose?
carbohydrate polymer, alpha glucose molecules, 1-4 glycosidic bonds, spring, compact,
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What is starch?
energy storage polysaccharide in plants, long straight-chained amylose, branched amylopectin, broken down into glucose, not soluble
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What is glycogen?
animal starch, alpha glucose, shorter than starch, more branches, more compact
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What is cellulose?
beta glucose, stronger than amylose, macro fibril and microfibrils, glucose molecules in an alternative pattern where one is up and one is down
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What are globular proteins?
roll up, soluble, hydrophobic and hydrophilic, metabolic roles, enzymes
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What are fibrous proteins?
form fibres, insoluble, structural role, collagen, keratin
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What is haemoglobin?
transport protein, soluble in water, range of amino acids, four polypeptide chains, 2 alpha chains, 2 beta chains, globular protein, contains a prosthetic group,
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What is collagen?
structural protein, fibrous protein, insoluble in water, 35% of primary structure made of one type of amino acid
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What are lipids?
chemicals that dissolve in organic solvents, such as alcohol but not water, include fatty acids, triglycerides, and cholesterol
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What are fatty acids made of?
have an acid at one end (same as amino acid), rest hydrocarbon chain,
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What is meant by unsaturated fatty acids?
healthier, C=C bond, changes shape of hydrocarbon, pushes lipids apart, more fluid so often found in animals in colder environments
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What are triglycerides?
one glycerol, 3 fatty acids, ester bond, insoluble in water, hydrophobic, charges evenly distributed
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What is cholesterol?
molecule made from 4 carbon-based rings, fits into the lipid bilayer to give strength and stability, used to form steroid hormones
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What are the properties of water molecules?
solvent (metabolic processes), liquid (movement of materials), cohesion (create surface tension difficult to break), freezing (water beneath becomes more insulated), thermal stability (constant temperatures, evaporation removes heat)
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What are purines and pyrimidines?
Pyrimidines consists of thymine, uracil and cytosine and are smaller. Purines consist of adenine and guanine
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How is RNA different to DNA?
Has uracil instead of thymine, sugar is ribose, polynucleotide is single stranded, three forms,
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How does pH effect an enzyme?
hydrogen ion attracted to negative part of molecules, hydrogen ions repels, this breaks hydrogen bonds and ionic bonds, destroying tertiary structure,
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What are coenzymes?
non-protein that binds to active site when substrate binds, recycled back to take part in the reaction, carry chemical groups,
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What are prosthetic groups?
coenzyme that is a permanent part of an enzyme molecule, contribute to properties
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What are inorganic ion cofactors?
ions combine with the enzyme or substrate making the enzyme-substrate complex form easily because it affects the charge distribution
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is starch?

Back

energy storage polysaccharide in plants, long straight-chained amylose, branched amylopectin, broken down into glucose, not soluble

Card 3

Front

What is glycogen?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is cellulose?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are globular proteins?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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