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7 things a plant cell contains
cell membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus, mitochondria, cell wall, large vacuole, chloroplasts
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4 things an animal cell contains
cell membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus, mitochondria
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what does the cytoplasm do
where chemical reactions take place
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what happens in mitochondria
respiration
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4 things in a bacterial cell
chromosomal DNA, plasmid DNA, flagella, cell wall
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what is a gene
a section of a molecule of DNA which codes for a specific protein
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what is a DNA molecule
2 strands coiled to form a double helix, linked by bases (A+T, C+G) held together by weak H bonds
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5 advantages of human genome project
personalised medicines, evolution of genome, treatments/cures, causation genes, testing for genetic disorders
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3 positives of genetic engineering
Vitamin A in golden rice, human insulin, herbicide resistant crop plants
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3 negatives of genetic engineering
golden rice may crossbreed (contaminating DNA), GM insulin doesn't suit all, herbicide resistant weeds/ loss of biodiversity
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what is mitosis
production of 4 identical diploid daughter cells with identical sets of chromosomes as parents
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3 things mitosis occurs in
growth, asexual reproduction, repair
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what is meiosis
production of 4 genetically different haploid gametes with half the number of chromosomes
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what happens at fertilisation
two haploid gametes combine to form a diploid zygote
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what is cloning an example of
asexual reproduction (mitosis)
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5 steps to cloning a mammal
remove diploid nucleus from body cell, enucleate egg cell, insert nucleus into egg, stimulate, implant into surrogate mammal
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2 advantages of cloning
GE copies of organism with desired characteristic, cows with human insulin in milk
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3 disadvantages of cloning
few embryos develop successfully (ethical), grow old quickly and die young, can't create mammal from one limb
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what can stem cells in the embryo do
differentiate (loses this ability as matures)
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Card 2

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4 things an animal cell contains

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cell membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus, mitochondria

Card 3

Front

what does the cytoplasm do

Back

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Card 4

Front

what happens in mitochondria

Back

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Card 5

Front

4 things in a bacterial cell

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