Biology Topic 2

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What are carbohydrates made up of?
Simple sugars. They contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Starch and glycogen and large, complex carbohydrates, which are made up of smaller units joined together in a long chain.
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What are proteins made up of?
Amino acids. Long chains of amino acids, all containing carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen and oxygen atoms.
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What are lipids made up of?
Fatty acids and glycerol. They contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms.
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How do you test for glucose?
Using Benedict's Reagent. Add to a sample and heat it, make sure the solution doesn't boil. The colour of the precipitate changes: blue-green-yellow-orange-brick red.
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How do you test for starch?
Using Iodine Solution. If starch is present, the sample changes from brown/orange to a dark blue/black colour.
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What seven food categories are there?
Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, vitamins, mineral ions, water, dietary fibre.
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What is the function of carbohydrates?
Provides energy.
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What is the function of lipids?
Provide energy, act as an energy store, provide insulation.
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What is the function of vitamin A?
Helps to improve vision and keep your skin and hair healthy.
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What is the function of vitamin C?
Needed to prevent scurvy.
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What is the function of vitamin D?
Needed for calcium absorption.
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What is the function of the mineral ion calcium?
Needed to make bones and teeth.
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What is the function of the mineral ion iron?
Needed to make haemoglobin for healthy blood.
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What is the function of water?
Every body function relies on water, we lose it from urination and so need to replace it.
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What is the function of dietary fibre?
Aids the movement of food through the gut.
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Give an example of each of the seven groups.
C- pasta,rice,sugar. L-butter,oily fish. P-meat,fish. V- a= liver, c= oranges, d= eggs. MI- c=milk, cheese. i=red meat. DF= wholemeal bread.
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How do energy requirements vary?
Activity level, age, pregnancy.
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How do you test how much energy is in food?
Pick a piece of dry food (eg popcorn), weigh, skewer it on a mounted needle, add 25cmcubed water to a boiling tube, measure temp of water, burn until food under tube goes out, measure the temp at the end. Use formula.
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How do you calculate the amount of energy in joules?
mass of water (g) x temperature change of water (degreesC) x 4.2
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How do you calculate the amount of energy in joules per gram?
energy in food (J) / mass of food (g)
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List the breakdown of digestive enzymes.
Amylase - starch -> maltose. Maltase - maltose -> glucose. Proteases - proteins -> amino acids. Lipases- lipids -> glycerol + fatty acids.
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What is the role of bile and where is it produced and stored?
Its produced in the liver and stored in the gall bladder (before released into small intestine). It neutralises the stomach acid and emulsifies fats.
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What is the alimentary canal another name for?
The gut.
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What is the role of the alimentary canal in different places of the body?
Mouth- salivary glands produce amylase enzyme in the saliva + teeth break down food mechanically. Oesophagus- muscular tube connects mouth and stomach. Liver- bile produced. Gall bladder- bile stored. Large intestine- excess water absorbed.
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What is the role of the alimentary canal in different places of the body? (part 2)
Small intestine - produces protease, amylase, lipase + nutrients absorbed from AC to body. Pancreas- produces protease, amylase, lipase- released into small intestine. Stomach- pummels the food w/ muscular walls + protease enzyme pepsin + HCl.
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Why is HCl released in the stomach?
To kill bacteria and to give the right pH for the protease enzyme to work (pH2- acidic).
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What are the five stages of digestion?
Ingestion, Digestion, Absorption, Assimilation, Egestion.
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What is ingestion?
Putting food or drink into your mouth.
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What is digestion?
The break-down of large, insoluble molecules into small, soluble molecules. Mechanical- teeth and stomach muscles. Chemical- enzymes and bile.
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What is absorption?
The process of moving molecules through the walls of the intestines into the blood. Digested food molecules are absorbed in the small intestine - water mainly in the large.
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What is assimilation?
The movement of digested, absorbed molecules being moved into body cells. The digested molecules become part of the cells. EG, amino acids (digested from proteins) are assimilated to be used by cells to make cellular proteins.
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What is egestion?
The undigested stuff forms faeces, which has no use in the body, is gotten rid of through the ****.
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What is the purpose of the villi in the small intestine?
Help with absorption. They cover the small intestines large surface area. They have a permeable layer of surface cells and a very good blood supply to assist quick absorption.
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Card 2

Front

What are proteins made up of?

Back

Amino acids. Long chains of amino acids, all containing carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen and oxygen atoms.

Card 3

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What are lipids made up of?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

How do you test for glucose?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

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How do you test for starch?

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