Biology Topic 1

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What does MRS GREN stand for?
Movement, Respiration, Sensitivity, Growth, Reproduction, Excretion, Nutrition.
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What are organelles?
Tiny structures within cells.
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List the organelles you would find in an animal cell.
Nucleus, Cell Membrane, Cytoplasm.
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List the organelles you would find in a plant cell.
Nucleus, Cell Membrane, Cytoplasm, Chloroplasts, Cell Wall, Vacuole.
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Why are cells specialised?
To carry out a specific function.
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What does the nucleus contain?
The genetic material that controls the cell's activities.
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What does the cell membrane do?
It forms the outer surface of the cell and controls the substances that go in and out.
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What happens in the cytoplasm?
It is a gel-like substance where the chemical reactions happen, because it contains the enzymes.
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What do chloroplasts do?
They photosynthesis, because they contain the chlorophyll needed.
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What is the cell wall?
A rigid structure made of cellulose, surrounding the cell membrane. It helps support the cell.
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What is a tissue?
A group of similar cells that work together to carry out a particular function. It can contain more than one type of cell.
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Give an example of a tissue.
Xylem tissue - for transporting water and mineral salts - found in a plant cell.
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What is an organ?
A group of different tissues that work together to perform a function.
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Give an example of an organ with several different tissue types.
Lungs in a mammal / Leaves on a plant
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What is an organ system?
Multiple organs working together, and each system does a different job.
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Give an example of an organ system.
The digestive system in mammals- stomach, intestines, pancreas and liver.
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What are the four main properties of plants?
Multicellular, contain chloroplasts (can photosynthesise), cell walls made of cellulose, store carbohydrates (eg sucrose or starch)
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What are the six main properties of animals?
Multicellular, don't have chloroplasts, don't have cell walls, nervous coordination, movement, store carbohydrates in the form of glycogen.
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What are the six main properties of fungi?
Some are single-celled- if not, body called a MYCELIUM; made of hyphae which contain a lot of nuclei, can't photosynthesise, cell walls made of chitin, feed by saprotrophic nutrition, store carbohydrates are glycogen.
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What are the three main properties of protoctists?
Single-celled and microscopic, some have chloroplasts (and are similar to plant cells), some are more like animal cells.
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What are the five main properties of bacteria?
Single-celled and microscopic, don't have a nucleus, circular chromosome of DNA, some can photosynthesis, most feed off other organisms.
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What are the five main properties of viruses?
Particles- smaller than bacteria, only reproduce inside living cells (parasites), different shapes and sizes, protein coat around some genetic material.
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Give an example of a plant.
Flowering plants such as cereals (maize), herbaceous legumes (peas and beans).
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Give an example of an animal.
Mammals, insects.
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Give an example of a fungi.
Yeast (single-celled fungus), mucor (multicellular, has a mycelium and hyphae).
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Give an example of a protoctist.
Chlorella (plant-cell-like), Amoeba (animal-cell-like, lives in pond water).
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Give an example of a bacterium.
Lactobacillus bulgaricus (make milk turn into yoghurt), pneumococcus (spherical in shape).
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Give an example of a virus, and state the organism effected and how.
HIV, human, attacks immune system and can lead to AIDS.
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Name three organisms that are pathogens.
Plasmodium, causes malaria - protoctist. Pneumococcus, causes pneumonia- bacterium. Influenza virus, causes flu - viruses.
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What is an enzyme?
Catalysts produced by living things.
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What is a catalyst?
A substance which increases the speed of a reaction without being changed or used up in the reaction.
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What is a substrate?
A molecule that is changed in reaction.
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What is an active site?
The part where a substrate joins on to the enzyme.
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What effect does temperature have on enzymes?
It changes the rate of the enzyme-catalysed reaction. At a higher temperature it increases the rate, until it gets too hot and the bonds holding the enzyme together break. The colder the temperature, the slower the reaction.
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How do you measure how fast a product appears?
The enzyme catalase catalyses the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen. Collect the oxygen produced and measure how much is released in a given time.
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How do you measure how fast a substrate disappears?
The enzyme amylase catalyses the breakdown of starch to maltose. Iodine solution = brown/orange -> blue/black.
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What is the effect of the pH on an enzyme?
If its too high or low, the bonds are interfered with- denaturing it. Optimum pH is usually 7.
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What is diffusion?
The movement of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.
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What is osmosis?
The movement of water molecules across a partially permeable membrane from a region of higher water concentration to a region of lower water concentration.
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What is a turgid plant cell?
The cells draw water in by osmosis and become plump and swollen.
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What is a flaccid plant cell?
The cells lose the turgor pressure, and droop.
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How do you investigate diffusion in a non-living system?
Place some agar jelly containing phenolphthalein and dilute sodium hydroxide into a beaker off hydrochloric acid. Leave the cubes for a while; they turn colourless as the acid diffuses into the agar jelly and neutralises with the sodium hydroxide.
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What is phenolphthalein?
A pH indicator. It is pink in alkaline solutions and colourless in acidic solutions.
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How do you investigate osmosis in a living system?
Cut up a potato into identical cyclinders. Have different beakers with different sugar solutions- one of pure water too. Measure the length of cylinders, and leave, then measure again. If water been drawn in, longer. If drawn out, shorter.
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How do you investigate osmosis in a non-living system?
Tie a piece of wire around one end of some Visking tubing, place a glass tube on the other end. Fix the tubing around it with wire, pour some sugar solution down the tube. Place in a beaker of pure water, measure where the sugar solution is...
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What is active transport?
The movement of particles against a concentration gradient (ie from an area of lower concentration to an area of higher concentration) using energy released during respiration.
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Give an example of where active transport is used.
In the digestive system; low concentration of nutrients in the gut, but a high concentration in the blood.
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What are the three main factors affecting the movement of substances?
Surface area to volume ratio, temperature, concentration gradient. SA:V- rate of diffusion, osmosis and AT is higher in cells with a larger surfacer area to volume ratio - substances can move in and out faster. Temp- warmer=more energy. CG=big- fast.
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Card 2

Front

What are organelles?

Back

Tiny structures within cells.

Card 3

Front

List the organelles you would find in an animal cell.

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

List the organelles you would find in a plant cell.

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Why are cells specialised?

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