Biology

What is the definition of osmosis?
The movement of water from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration through a selectively permeable membrane.
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What happens to an animal cell during osmosis? What happens to a plant cell during osmosis?
Eventually, an animal cell will burst. A plant cell will not burst because their cell wall is strong enough to prevent it.
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What happens to the cytoplasm of plant and animal cells during osmosis? What also happens to the cytoplasm in a plant cell?
It will shrivel due to loss of water and the cell may die. In a plant cell, the cytoplasm may pull away from the cell wall- this is known as plasmolysis.
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What is the word equation for photosynthesis?
Carbon dioxide + water ---> glucose + oxygen
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What happens to the glucose made by a plant during photosynthesis?
It can be used in respiration to provide energy. It can be transported as sucrose, or to growing points, stem and roots. It can be transformed into starch for storage, into cellulose for cell walls or into proteins for growth.
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What factors affect the rate of photosynthesis?
Temperature, light intensity and levels of carbon dioxide.
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What are the limiting factors of photosynthesis in the day and night?
In the night, the limiting factor is light. In the day, the limiting factor is usually carbon dioxide, although it may be temperature during the winter.
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How can you test the need for carbon dioxide in photosynthesis?
By removing carbon dioxide with sodium hydroxide solution.
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How can you monitor the rate of photosynthesis?
By using carbon dioxide and oxygen sensors.
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What is the word equation for aerobic respiration?
Glucose + oxygen ---> carbon dioxide + water + ENERGY
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What is the word equation for anaerobic respiration?
Glucose ---> lactic acid + ENERGY
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What is the word equation for fermentation of yeast?
glucose ---> ethanol + carbon dioxide + ENERGY
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Why is anaerobic respiration less efficient than aerobic respiration?
Less energy is released per molecule of glucose.
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What are the alveoli?
Air sacs at the end of the bronchioles where gas exchange takes place.
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What two diseases can smoking cause?
Lung cancer and emphysema
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How does smoking increase the risk of disease?
The inhalation of smoke causes paralysis of the cilia. The mucus and trapped particles will sink into the lungs, causing irritation, damaging the lung tissue and increasing the risk of disease.
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How do you test for starch and what indicates a positive result?
Add iodine solution. Blue-black colour appears.
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How do you test for glucose and what indicates a positive result?
Add Benedict's solution. Place in a boiling water bath. Solution goes cloudy and changes from blue-black to brick red.
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How do you test for protein and what indicates a positive result?
Add an equal amount of sodium hydroxide, then a few drops of copper(II) sulphate solution. Lilac colour appears.
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What are the limitations of a visking tubing modeling a gut?
Visking tubing is non-living so does not have the mechanisms that the gut has and also cannot move the food around by muscular contractions.
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What are the functions of a) carbohydrase, b)protease, c) lipase?
a) breaks down carbohydrates into glucose. b) breaks down proteins into amino acids. c) breaks down lipids (fats) into fatty acids and glycerol.
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a) Where is bile stored? b) Where is bile produced? c) what is the function of bile?
a) the gall bladder. b) the liver. c) it emulsifies fats, giving them a bigger surface area for lipase enzymes to work on.
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What is peristalsis?
Moving food along the small intestine by the contraction of circular gut muscles behind the food, and relaxation of the muscles in front of the food.
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What is the definition of biodiversity?
Biodiversity means the variety or number of different species in a given area.
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Why is biodiversity important?
The more species there are in an area, the more stable the ecosystem is.
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What are the benefits of biodiversity?
Biodiversity provides potential foods, industrial materials and new medicines for humans. Also, stable ecosystems help to regulate the atmosphere, water supply and nutrient cycles, and provide fertile soil.
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What are the reasons for a reduction in species number?
Changes in land use, climate change, over-exploitation or an introduction of 'alien' species.
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What legislation is in place to protect biodiversity?
the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species, Sites of Special Scientific Interest and legally enforced fishing quotas.
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What attempts can be made to prevent loss of biodiversity?
Captive breeding programmes by zoos, establishment of national parks, setting up 'seed banks' and local biodiversity 'action plans'.
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What is a transect?
A set of samples taken down a set line, usually marked by a chain or tape. Samples are taken at measured intervals.
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What are the advantages of biodiversity?
No chemicals are used that may cause bioaccumalation, a biological control will just attack the pest species (if carefully selected), biological control usually reduces the pest species to a managaeble level to make for a more stable ecosystem.
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What are the disadvantages of biodiversity?
It is more complicated to operate than chemical control, it is difficult to use outdoors, it is more expensive than chemical control, and it may cause problems in the ecosystem.
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What are the problems with alien species?
They may become invasive and upset the natural ecosystem.
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When using the capture-recapture technique, for the population estimate to be accurate what conditions must apply?
Sufficient time must have elapsed, there must have been no large scale movement of animals in or out of the area, the marking doesn't affect the chances of the animal, the marking doesn't affect the chances of recapture by making them more noticeable
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What happens to an animal cell during osmosis? What happens to a plant cell during osmosis?

Back

Eventually, an animal cell will burst. A plant cell will not burst because their cell wall is strong enough to prevent it.

Card 3

Front

What happens to the cytoplasm of plant and animal cells during osmosis? What also happens to the cytoplasm in a plant cell?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is the word equation for photosynthesis?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What happens to the glucose made by a plant during photosynthesis?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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