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what is the equation of respiration?
glusose+oxygen=carbon dioxide+water
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what is the diefintiation of respiration and where does it take place?
respiration is a chemical process of releasing energy from cells, it takes place in cells and is used to get nutrients found in food
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why is repiration so important?
this is because it is the way that the energy in glucose is released and if this process stopped all the cells would die.
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what is the difference between respiration and breathing?
respirtation is the process of energy being released from cells and breathing is the process of bringing air in and out of the lungs.
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what are some structural features of the alveoli?
they has thin walls meaning it is easy for gas particles to pass through them (carbon dioxide) they also have a large surface area because they are folded. .
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what is the function of the respiratory system?
to transport air into the lungs and to facilitate the diffusion of oxygen into the blood stream.
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gas exchange-note?
red blood cells enter, and lets out carbon dioxide into the alveoli and oxygen enters the red blood cell.
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what happens to the diaphram when you inhale and exhale?
when you inhale your diaphram contracts and when you exhale the diaphram relaxes and moves up.
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function of the heart and its role as a double pump?
it is a double pump because it has two sides and one pumps oxygenated blood and the other pumps de-oxygenated blood.
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in order of size, capillaries, arteries and veins?
Caphillaries, viens and arteries are the largest in size.
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what is the function of a Capillary?
every cell is close to a capillary and they are long and thin. this is sometimes where diffusion happens.
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what is the function of a Vein?
they have one way valves to keep the blood flowing in the right direction and they have than layer of muscle.
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name 4 affects of exercise on the heart ?
increases in size,reduces the risk of heart attacks and you have a lower resting heart rate.
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name 4 affects of exercise on the body (in general)?
raised body temperature and pulse and your bones get denser over a period of time.
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name some factors that can increase the risk of a stroke or heart attack?
high blood pressure, smoking,drinking (to often) and also stress or lack of physical activity
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how does a plaque form in the arteries and what does this affect?
plaque is a mix of blood cells and fat cholestral which cloggs up the artery wall making them narrower. it means you have to work harder to push blood.
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defenition of chemical and physical digestion?
chemical digestion is when glucose leaks into the blood as starch is digested and Physical digestion is the braking up of solids by the teeth or tongue. then the stomach churns your food and breaks down the big chunks.
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what do veins and arteries carry?
arteries carry rich in oxygen blood away from the heart and have high pressure whereas veins carry de oxygenated blood back to the heart with a much lower pressure.
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what is the function of the digestive system?
it converts food into essential nutrients that are absorbed into the body.
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what are the role of villi?
they absorb nutrients from the food and have a very large surface area.
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what are enzymes made up of?
they are proteins which are on a long string of animo acids.
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what do enzymes do?
they speed up reactions and they break up molecules to make them easier to digest.
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what is the importance of fibre?
it keeps the digestive system healthy and benefits cholesterol levels and weight control aswell as diabietes.
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what are the different nutrients in your body?
Carbs,Proteins,Vitamins,Water,Minerals,Fibres and Fats
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what is the function of carbohydrates and an example of food?
supplies energy-rice
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what is the function of proteins and an example of food?
helps antibodies and helps build and repair body tissues-almonds and salmon
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what is the function of vitamins and an example of food?
require a small amount and fit to your own needs but they generally help give you next vitamins when you dont eat the right things.vitamin a helps build immune system but vitamin d strengthens bones-
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what is the function of minerals and an example of food?
they help the body survive and carry out daily functions and processes
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what is the function of water and an example of food?
a medium in which chemical reaction takes place.-watermelon,cucumber
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what is the function of fat and an example of food?
supplies energy-butter,icecream and biscuits.
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what is the function of fibres and an example of food?
plays a role in lowering blood cholesterol and controlling weight control
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what is a balanced diet?
a diet that contains the right portions of all the necessary nutrients required for healthy growth and activity. Bran and Cabbage.
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how are proteins digested into amino acids and why are they important ?
enzymes split proteins and into amino acids- they help to build muscles.
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how is starch digested into sugar?
amylase enymes in your saliva break down the starch as you chew, then digestion breaks down the starch molecules.
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what factors affect the food you eat?
the people around you, what your parents eat, convenience and following other people and trends.
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what are microbes?
they are organisms that are too small to see with a microscope.
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how do to fungi and bacteria grow?
they grow by dividing.
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what does a fungi cell have (features)?
cell membrane,cell wall,cell nucleus and cytoplasm, vacuole.
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what does a bactera cell have (features)?
a cell membrane, cell wall and no cell necleus instead they have a chromosome.
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what does a virus cell have (features)?
i doesn't have a cell membrane,wall or nucleus. it has a portein coat and a strand a genes.
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how do viruses grow?
they reporduce but not by itself. the genes enter a cell and force them to make new virus cells, the cells then dies and the virus takes over.
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how can pathogenic microbes make you ill and how do they get into your body?
they have the potential to be harmful. they can enter your body through cuts, your mouth or when ou pick them up on skin and they enter your salliva.
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what are the main barriers of the body?
the skin is a barrier-stomach acids-tears contain enzymes.
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what 3 things to white blood cells do?
they eat the microbe, produce anitbodies to neutrelise it, and produce antitoxins to neutrilise the poisons in the microbe.
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what does it mean to be immune?
restitant to a particular infection or toxin. it means that if the same cell (type) went into your body the white blood cells would recognise the antigen and can produce antibodies much faster.
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how do white blood cells produce antibodies?
a white blood cell will see the antigen (outside of cell) it produce antibodies to fit the antigen. the antibodies cause cells to clump and another white blood cell engulfs them.
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what do antibodies destroy and not destroy?
they destroy bacteria but not viruses.
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what is a vaccine?
they protect you from different diseases and boost your bodies immunity. they also create immunity which protects you from infection.
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what are antibiotics for?
an antibiotic is an agent which inhibits the growth of a microbe.
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how can bacteria become resistant to antibiotics?
random changes occur in the genes of individual bacterias
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what are so special about stem cells?
they are cells that can divide and then be changed into other cells.
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how can they be used to treat some diseases?
doctors want to be able to inject embryonic stem cells into adults which can then be changed into different cells fitting their needs. this means there would be no transplants.
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what is the risk of stem cells?
people have different types of blood and there would be complications.
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what is the diefintiation of respiration and where does it take place?

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respiration is a chemical process of releasing energy from cells, it takes place in cells and is used to get nutrients found in food

Card 3

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why is repiration so important?

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Card 4

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what is the difference between respiration and breathing?

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Card 5

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what are some structural features of the alveoli?

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