• Created by: Ellie
  • Created on: 02-06-14 18:13
what is the definition of respiration?
a chemical reaction that releases energy in living things by converting glucose and oxygen into carbon dioxide plus water
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what is the equation for respiration?
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where does respiration take place? why?
in our cells - because they need energy and they get this from respiring
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list 4 things your cells use the energy from respiration for
(1) to keep you warm (2) to stay alive (3) to grow (4) to repair themselves
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what 2 equations are the same?
the equations for respiring and for burning glucose. Both processes turn a fuel (glucose) and oxygen into carbon dioxide and water - and they both release energy.
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How do glucose and oxygen get to our cells?
blood brings glucose and oxygen to every cell
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what do our cells do to release energy?
during respiration they react to make energy
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what does the respiration reaction produce?
carbon dioxide and water
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which cells fill up with oxygen as your blood passes through them?
red blood cells
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how do your muscles help you breathe in?
they make your chest bigger to draw air in through your mouth and nose
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what comes down from your nose and mouth and divides into two and keeps dividing into millions of branches?
your windpipe
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what is at the end of each branch coming down from your windpipe?
a cluster of air pockets called alveoli, surrounded by a fine network of blood vessels
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Because of the walls of blood vessels and alveoli being so thin, what can easily move from one end to the other?
gas molecules by diffusion
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what do lungs pump?
air in and out of our bodies
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what happens in gas exchange?
oxygen and carbon dioxide pass between the blood and air through the alveoli
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what are arteries?
strong blood vessels that carry blood away from your heart
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why does blood spurt out of a damaged artery?
because each heartbeat gives blood a hard push, so the blood in arteries is always under pressure and moving fast.
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what do the 2 big arteries that leave your heart do?
one takes blood to your lungs to collect oxygen, and the other carries blood to the rest of your body. Blood carrying oxygen comes back from the lungs and the heart pushes it round the rest of the body.
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how many times does a single blood cell go through the heart on each trip around the body?
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the arteries divide again and again into smaller and smaller blood vessels - what are the smallest called?
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as a result of capillaries being so thin - what can diffuse?
molecules like glucose and oxygen can diffuse out to the body cells around them
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capillaries join up to for wide blood vessels - what are these called and what do they do?
veins, they return blood to your heart
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what have you damaged if you cut yourself and the bleeding soon stops?
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what have you cut if blood flows out in a smooth stream without a pulse
a vein
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does blood travel quickly in veins? what stop blood from flowing backwards?
no - blood travels slowly in veins. Flaps called valves act like one-way doors to stop blood from flowing backwards
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what does the heart pump?
blood out to the lungs and the rest of the body
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what does blood leave the heart in? and return in?
leaves in arteries and returns in veins
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what do capillaries deliver?
blood to every cell
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what 3 things does your fitness depend on?
your heart, lungs and blood vessels
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what happens the fitter you are?
the more your heart, lungs and blood vessels can increase the oxygen and glucose supply to your cells and let your muscles work harder
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which two organs determine your fitness?
heart and lungs
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why is blood sent to your muscles faster when you are doing exercise?
because you need more oxygen and glucose to keep your energy up and keep you going
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what makes arteries narrower? what does the heart have to do as a result?
plaque in the arteries make them narrower - your heart has to work harder to push through them
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what is the yellow plaque made from?
a mixture of fat, cholesterol and blood cells - plaque starts forming in your teens
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what happens if plaque breaks away from an artery wall?
a clot forms and the artery is blocked - if it leads to your heart or brain you have a stroke or heart attack
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what does exercise do?
make your heart and lungs work harder to deliver oxygen and strengthens your heart muscles
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what does plaque in your arteries do?
puts a strain on your heart and can cause a bloackage
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what is the job of the digestive system?
to turn the food you eat into forms which your body can use
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digestion breaks down complex molecules into simple nutrients like glucose which your body can use - how are these carried?
these pass into your blood and are carried to every cell
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what does saliva contain? what does these do?
enzymes - they break down large molecules into small ones. The enzymes in saliva starts to break down starch as you chew
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why do you need saliva? 2 reasons
because it helps food slide down your gullet and it contains enzymes that break down your food
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what happens to food in your stomach?
your stomach blends the food with another enzyme to make a smooth paste - then it squirts into the small intestine
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what is the name of the finger-like things that line the inside wall of your intestine? describe.
villi - they has a good blood supply and absorb nutrients into the blood
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how is food moved through the small intestine?
muscles around the intestine squeeze food along and mix it with more enzymes
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what happens when a meal gets to the large intestine?
there is nothing left of the food but fibre - this cant be broken down but you still need to eat it, it stops you getting constipated
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what part of the gut is filled with friendly bacteria?
the large intestine
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what is the name of the foods that give you extra bacteria? give an example
probiotics - like live yoghurt
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what do the walls of the large intestine do?
absorb water to turn the mixture of fibre and bacteria into a solid food waste called faeces.
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where is faeces stored?
in the rectum until you are ready to go to the loo
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what does digestion do?
breaks down complex food molecules to small nutrient molecules we can use
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what does villi do?
villi in the small intestine absorbs these broken-down moelcules and move food along
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what sorts of food give you energy?
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which nutrients do you need for growth and repair?
proteins and but too much fat, some fats have been linked to heart disease
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what foods do most get protein and fat from? and vegetarians?
meat, fish and dairy products. Vegeterians = beans, nuts and cereals
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what do you only need a small amount of, but can affect your health if you dont have enough of?
vitamins and minerals
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what mineral do most people get to much of?
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carbohydrates you eat come in 2 different forms - what are these?
starches - with big molecules and sugars - like glucose
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what breaks down starch to glucose?
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your whole body is made of proteins, proteins are made of long molecules - made of chains of what?
proteins are long molecules made of chains of amino acids
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what does a balanced diet contain?
carbohydrates, protein, fats, minerals, vitamins and fibre
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what do cells use nutrients for?
respiration and to build proteins
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Card 2


what is the equation for respiration?



Card 3


where does respiration take place? why?


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Card 4


list 4 things your cells use the energy from respiration for


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Card 5


what 2 equations are the same?


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